The Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN) is a multicenter, multiethnic, community based longitudinal study designed to characterize the biological, symptomatic and psychosocial changes that occur during the menopausal transition and the effects of these changes on women's health during and after the transition. Current and prior funding (SWAN I and II) has supported a baseline and six annual follow-up examinations during which 895 (48%) women will have transitioned to postmenopause. This application requests funding to complete four additional follow-up visits (SWAN III) to allow an adequate evaluation of the late perimenopause and early postmenopause, a period that has not been well studied, particularly among non-white women. We will continue our current tracking of changes in reproductive hormones, bleeding patterns, symptoms, bone loss, cardiovascular (CV) risk factors blood pressure, body size, and other related characteristics and will undertake new scientific endeavors in targeted areas. These include measurement of vascular stiffness to assess early CV disease, assessment of vertebral morphometry at four sites using DEXA technology, and the addition of two cognitive function test. In addition, we will focus on linking the midlife experience to age-related outcomes (e.g. cognitive function, urinary incontinence) and chronic diseases (e.g. fractures, diabetes and hypertension). Specimens from the additional follow-up visits will continue to contribute to the SWAN biological specimen repository (annual blood and urine samples as well as DNA and immortalized cells). This is a separately funded component that broadens the opportunities to address future hypotheses about health and disease in aging women. As women reach the end of early postmenopause (two years following the final menstrual period), we will shift from an annual to a bi-annual follow-up examination schedule with mail and telephone contact in the alternating years. This will permit cost-effective and less intensive follow-up. SWAN's organization and operations have been modified to enhance productivity and we are poised to publish important biological, symptom and behavioral results pertaining to the menopause transition. With SWAN III, many of the original goals of SWAN will be brought to fruition. We will build upon the rich foundation developed during SWAN I and II and link these data to important menopauserelated and health outcomes in SWAN III.

National Institute of Health (NIH)
National Institute on Aging (NIA)
Research Project--Cooperative Agreements (U01)
Project #
Application #
Study Section
Special Emphasis Panel (ZAG1-ZIJ-8 (J2))
Program Officer
Sherman, Sherry
Project Start
Project End
Budget Start
Budget End
Support Year
Fiscal Year
Total Cost
Indirect Cost
Rush University Medical Center
Public Health & Prev Medicine
Schools of Medicine
United States
Zip Code
Hanley, Carrie; Matthews, Karen A; Brooks, Maria M et al. (2018) Cardiovascular fat in women at midlife: effects of race, overall adiposity, and central adiposity. The SWAN Cardiovascular Fat Study. Menopause 25:38-45
Chung, Hsin-Fang; Pandeya, Nirmala; Dobson, Annette J et al. (2018) The role of sleep difficulties in the vasomotor menopausal symptoms and depressed mood relationships: an international pooled analysis of eight studies in the InterLACE consortium. Psychol Med 48:2550-2561
Dugan, Sheila A; Gabriel, Kelley Pettee; Lange-Maia, Brittney S et al. (2018) Physical Activity and Physical Function: Moving and Aging. Obstet Gynecol Clin North Am 45:723-736
B├ęcares, Laia; Zhang, Nan (2018) Perceived Interpersonal Discrimination and Older Women's Mental Health: Accumulation Across Domains, Attributions, and Time. Am J Epidemiol 187:924-932
Everson-Rose, Susan A; Clark, Cari J; Wang, Qi et al. (2018) Depressive symptoms and adipokines in women: Study of women's health across the nation. Psychoneuroendocrinology 97:20-27
Hedgeman, Elizabeth; Hasson, Rebecca E; Karvonen-Gutierrez, Carrie A et al. (2018) Perceived stress across the midlife: longitudinal changes among a diverse sample of women, the Study of Women's health Across the Nation (SWAN). Womens Midlife Health 4:
Waetjen, L Elaine; Crawford, Sybil L; Chang, Po-Yin et al. (2018) Factors associated with developing vaginal dryness symptoms in women transitioning through menopause: a longitudinal study. Menopause 25:1094-1104
Ruppert, K; Cauley, J; Lian, Y et al. (2018) The effect of insulin on bone mineral density among women with type 2 diabetes: a SWAN Pharmacoepidemiology study. Osteoporos Int 29:347-354
Crawford, Sybil L; Crandall, Carolyn J; Derby, Carol A et al. (2018) Menopausal hormone therapy trends before versus after 2002: impact of the Women's Health Initiative Study Results. Menopause :
Karlamangla, Arun S; Burnett-Bowie, Sherri-Ann M; Crandall, Carolyn J (2018) Bone Health During the Menopause Transition and Beyond. Obstet Gynecol Clin North Am 45:695-708

Showing the most recent 10 out of 421 publications