A considerable body of evidence shows that exercise training induces multiple beneficial changes in cardiometabolic risk factors and that physically active individuals have lower mortality and morbidity rates than their sedentary counterparts. However, there are marked inter-individual differences in the responsiveness to regular physical activity with some individuals showing great benefits while others do not. While the response heterogeneity is clearly genetically determined, little is known about the molecular pathways and mechanisms that contribute to the adaptation to acute exercise and exercise training. The goal of the Molecular Transducers of Physical Activity Consortium (MoTrPAC) is to ?understand the molecular changes that occur in response to physical activity?. We therefore propose to conduct a randomized clinical trial in which we will collect biological samples (blood, skeletal muscle and adipose tissue) before and after a 12-week aerobic or resistance training program in healthy, sedentary individuals. In addition, we will collect samples before, during and after a single bout of exercise at baseline and after training. We will also collect biosamples in highly trained athletes involved in endurance or strength sports. The overarching goal of the program is to contribute to the development of a molecular map of transducers that underlie the effects of physical activity. To achieve this goal, investigators at the Pennington Biomedical Research Center propose to: 1) Enroll and randomize 518 healthy, but sedentary volunteers (50% Caucasians, 47.5% African Americans, 2.5% others; aged 21-75 y; BMI 20-40 kg/m2) in a 3/3/1 scheme to a 12-week intervention trial comprised of two exercise groups, aerobic (AER) and resistance (RES) training, and a control group (CON). The goal is to have 178 completers in each training group and 60 in the CON group (20% attrition). 2) Recruit and enroll 50 athletes (ATH) competing in endurance (n=25) and strength (n=25) sports to serve as an active control group. The ATH group will undergo baseline testing and an acute bout of exercise consistent with their normal training regimen with similar pre- and post-acute exercise samples collection. The AER program will start at 3 days per week of treadmill walking/running progressing to 4 days per week by week 2 with an initial moderate intensity (heart rate associated with 50% VO2peak), then increasing to a more vigorous intensity (HR 75% VO2peak) by week 6. The RES program will be performed 3 days per week and consist of 9 exercises on Universal Gym Equipment, including four upper body lifts, three lower body lifts, abdominal crunch, and back extensions. The RES program will progress from 2 sets of 10-20 repetitions to 3 sets of 8-10 repetitions after week 2. All AER and RES exercise sessions will be conducted under strict supervision by trained staff. Because of the expertise in training studies and translational research as well as the availability of state-of-the-art facilities, Pennington investigators are well positioned to recruit/retain a diverse population, conduct the proposed trial and collect/store the necessary biosamples.
With the development of personalized precision medicine for lifestyle prescriptions aimed at improving cardiometabolic health, we need to uncover the molecular predictors of health improvement in response to exercise training. We have therefore designed a randomized clinical trial to collect biosamples (blood, muscle and adipose) to contribute to the development of a molecular map of transducers underlying the beneficial health effects of physical activity in humans.