Cardiovascular disease (CVD) has emerged as an increasingly important cause of morbidity and mortality among people living with HIV (PLWHIV). Now that HIV is considered a manageable chronic disease, the identification and treatment of comorbid medical conditions including CVD are increasingly the focus of research and clinical attention. What is missing, however, is yet another critical component of care for PLWHIV: integrated care for histories of trauma. Experiences of trauma increase the likelihood of HIV infection as well as CVD risk, yet health care for PLWHIV is rarely coordinated to address these three intersecting issues of HIV, CVD, and trauma, particularly among those disproportionately affected by HIV, i.e., ethnic minority patients. Histories of trauma among PLWHIV are associated with inconsistent treatment adherence and non-adherence, and trauma history alone is associated with poor CVD outcomes. Failure to address trauma poses significant barriers to the adoption of CVD risk strategies among PLWHIV. Health systems that coordinate and integrate care across HIV and chronic conditions such as CVD may provide the infrastructure needed to address the complex interplay of these conditions and their therapies. We have designed a novel blended, culturally-congruent, evidence-informed care model, ?Healing our Minds and Bodies? (HMB), to address patients' trauma histories and barriers to care, and to prepare patients to engage in CVD risk reduction. Recognizing the need to ensure that PLWHIV receive CVD guideline-concordant care, we have also identified implementation strategies to prepare providers and clinics for addressing CVD risk among their HIV-positive patients. Therefore, using a hybrid type II effectiveness/implementation study design, the goal of this study is to increase both patient and organizational readiness to address trauma and CVD risk among PLWHIV.
The Specific Aims are: (1) to assess and enhance organizational readiness for addressing trauma and CVD risk among ethnic minority PLWHIV; specifically, a phased approach will drive the use of implementation strategies designed to educate, monitor, and support providers and staff in adhering to CVD care guidelines; (2) u sing mixed methods, to (a) evaluate the use and effectiveness of implementation strategies over time, and (b) identify barriers and facilitators to organizational adoption of guidelines, provider adherence to guidelines, feasibility, and sustainability; and (3) to evaluate the effect of HMB on cognitive-behavioral, emotional, and physical outcomes among 260 PLWHIV, specifically patient activation, engagement in care, knowledge of CVD risk, adherence to clinicians' recommendations, cardiovascular health, mental health symptoms, and satisfaction with care. W e will use the RE-AIM framework to guide the evaluation and the Replicating Effective Programs (REP) Framework to guide the use of implementation strategies and the tailoring of the care model within our participating implementation settings.
Cardiovascular disease has become a substantial concern among people living with HIV (PLWHIV), especially now that HIV is considered a manageable chronic disease. A missing piece in services for PLWHIV who have cardiovascular disease risk factors is attention to trauma histories; a history of trauma can affect treatment adherence and cardiovascular health. This project focuses on preparing PLWHIV to address their cardiovascular health by first addressing their trauma histories, and supporting HIV service organizations to use cardiovascular health guidelines among their HIV-positive clients.