The goal of the Policy & Practice Observational and Survey Research Core (P2S Core) is to track dynamic changes in policies related to opioids and provide data infrastructure support to JCOIN, the individual Clinical Research Centers (CRC), and to the greater community of justice and community-based stakeholders. P2S will create a scientifically rigorous and rapid system for (1) gathering data on such policies, (2) the outcomes of the policies inclusive of geospatial outcomes, (3) evaluating the utility of the policies and (4) reporting on this policy research to JCOIN and other policy makers and providing related technical assistance (TA) to the CRCs.
Aim 1. Determine the quality and extent of opioid use policy implementation in order to inform CRCs and other policy makers in effective opioid treatment strategies. The P2S will implement stakeholder surveys with treatment providers and law enforcement agencies (LEAs) and related administrative data, tracking of near real-time changes in justice and non-justice settings across US. For all of our aims, we will use the ?Risk Environment Framework? as our conceptual model to guide which variables are included in our varying data collections.
Aim 2. Assess harm reduction and justice policy outcomes through timely understanding of current and changing practices related to opioids in justice settings. P2S questions include: What are current practices for addressing opioids in justice settings, do they vary across regions, have they changed with the work of the CRCs and has this led to reductions in opioids? What kinds of constraints do opioid users within and outside the justice system face in finding treatment? Is there a difference in the life course of opioid users compared to other users? In addition, to examining risk factors for opioid use and relapse we will explore positive deviance (not simply the absence of risk factors) and why some individuals recover. 2a. National-level research: Evolve foundational national survey research (using NORC's online nationally representative panel of 25,000 households) to support the work of the clinical sites through near-real time tracking of the impact of dynamic changing opioid policies and attitudes towards practices and law related to addressing opioids in justice settings across the US. We will explore pathways to and away from opioid use and addiction and the role the criminal justice system plays in those pathways. 2b. Local-level research: P2S would deploy NORC's nimble national team of 800 field interviewers/survey personnel located across the US, who can be mobilized swiftly, conduct rapid assessments, using quantitative and qualitative data collection tools, to provide near-real time measurement of policy outcomes, practices and laws related to addressing opioids in CRC justice settings. We would conduct the following at each CRC site:
Aim 3. Evaluate the utility of harm reduction and criminal justice policies on regional opioid use disorder health outcomes using spatially extended treatment effect analyses.