Visualizing viral infection and the ensuing immune response provides unique insights into viral pathogenesis as well as immune-mediated viral clearance. Using a variety of imaging modalities, including ex vivo analysis of frozen tissue sections as well as in vivo multiphoton microscopy, we have been imaging viral infection of the lymph node, skin, spleen, liver, and ovaries. We create fluorescent-protein expressing viruses and fluorescently tagged virions to explore viral infection and spread in the tissue, and we use fluorescent reporter mice identifying different immune cell populations to visualize the behavior of cells in virus-infected tissue. These studies provide fundamental knowledge of the pathogenesis and clearance of vaccinia virus, influenza virus, zika virus, and sindbis virus which can then be applied to rational vaccine or therapeutic design.

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Cush, Stephanie S; Reynoso, Glennys V; Kamenyeva, Olena et al. (2016) Locally Produced IL-10 Limits Cutaneous Vaccinia Virus Spread. PLoS Pathog 12:e1005493
Jegaskanda, Sinthujan; Luke, Catherine; Hickman, Heather D et al. (2016) Generation and Protective Ability of Influenza Virus-Specific Antibody-Dependent Cellular Cytotoxicity in Humans Elicited by Vaccination, Natural Infection, and Experimental Challenge. J Infect Dis 214:945-52
Hickman, Heather D; Pierson, Theodore C (2016) Zika in the Brain: New Models Shed Light on Viral Infection. Trends Mol Med 22:639-641
Hickman, Heather D (2016) Illuminating inflammasome activity in vivo. Nat Med 22:22-3
Seedhom, Mina O; Hickman, Heather D; Wei, Jiajie et al. (2016) Protein Translation Activity: A New Measure of Host Immune Cell Activation. J Immunol 197:1498-506
Hickman, Heather D; Reynoso, Glennys V; Ngudiankama, Barbara F et al. (2015) CXCR3 chemokine receptor enables local CD8(+) T cell migration for the destruction of virus-infected cells. Immunity 42:524-37
Hickman, Heather D (2015) Immunology. There goes the macrophage neighborhood. Science 347:609-10