We have used chromosome transmission fidelity (ctf) mutants and the deletion strain collections of S. cerevisiae to identify and characterize genes required for kinetochore function and checkpoint function. Studies with the ctf mutants led to the identification and characterization of the roles of SPT4 and NUP170 in chromosome segregation and spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) function. We established a novel role for Spt4p in heterochromatic silencing. Using a cross-species approach, we showed that the yeast spt4 strains are complemented by human SPT4. Most importantly, we showed that S. cerevisiae SPT4 contributes to the proper localization of evolutionarily conserved centromeric histone H3 variant (CenH3) Cse4p. The major research goal of our laboratory is to investigate the molecular mechanisms that regulate the function of Cse4p and its interacting partners (Scm3p and Histone H4) to mediate faithful chromosome segregation. We investigated the mechanism of Cse4p localization and have established that mislocalization of Cse4p and altered histone stoichiometry lead to defects in chromosome transmission. Our studies have also shown that overexpression Scm3p and its human homolog HJURP leads to genome instability in yeast and human systems. We examined the effect of chromatin modifiers and post-translational modification of kinetochore proteins on the assembly/function of CenH3 chromatin. Our results showed that hypoacetylation state of centromeric histone H4 is critical for faithful chromosome segregation. Our recent results with Cse4p localization and histone dosage in S. cerevisiae are consistent with those in S. pombe, suggesting conservation of the underlying mechanisms. Thus, studies in S. cerevisiae that elucidate a mechanism for Cse4p localization and the role of chromatin modifications in centromere function may help us understand analogous pathways in humans and other systems. Our research on the molecular determinants of faithful chromosome transmission in S. cerevisiae will help us understand analogous processes in humans and their implications in human disease. Our laboratory is uniquely poised to utilize conventional genetic, biochemical, and cell biology approaches, as well as high-throughput genomic analysis for our research projects. We use an array of gene-deletion strains and a colony-picking robot for the identification of possible cancer drug targets and also for genetic screens by synthetic genome analysis (SGA), developed in the laboratory of Charlie Boone (University of Toronto).

National Institute of Health (NIH)
National Cancer Institute (NCI)
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National Cancer Institute Division of Basic Sciences
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Mishra, Prashant K; Thapa, Kriti S; Chen, Panyue et al. (2018) Budding yeast CENP-ACse4 interacts with the N-terminus of Sgo1 and regulates its association with centromeric chromatin. Cell Cycle 17:11-23
Ohkuni, Kentaro; Levy-Myers, Reuben; Warren, Jack et al. (2018) N-terminal Sumoylation of Centromeric Histone H3 Variant Cse4 Regulates Its Proteolysis To Prevent Mislocalization to Non-centromeric Chromatin. G3 (Bethesda) 8:1215-1223
Shrestha, Roshan L; Ahn, Grace S; Staples, Mae I et al. (2017) Mislocalization of centromeric histone H3 variant CENP-A contributes to chromosomal instability (CIN) in human cells. Oncotarget 8:46781-46800
Mishra, Prashant K; Ciftci-Yilmaz, Sultan; Reynolds, David et al. (2016) Polo kinase Cdc5 associates with centromeres to facilitate the removal of centromeric cohesin during mitosis. Mol Biol Cell 27:2286-300
Ohkuni, Kentaro; Takahashi, Yoshimitsu; Fulp, Alyona et al. (2016) SUMO-Targeted Ubiquitin Ligase (STUbL) Slx5 regulates proteolysis of centromeric histone H3 variant Cse4 and prevents its mislocalization to euchromatin. Mol Biol Cell :
Mishra, Prashant K; Guo, Jiasheng; Dittman, Lauren E et al. (2015) Pat1 protects centromere-specific histone H3 variant Cse4 from Psh1-mediated ubiquitination. Mol Biol Cell 26:2067-79
Ohkuni, Kentaro; Takahashi, Yoshimitsu; Basrai, Munira A (2015) Protein purification technique that allows detection of sumoylation and ubiquitination of budding yeast kinetochore proteins Ndc10 and Ndc80. J Vis Exp :e52482
Lai, Xianning; Beilharz, Traude; Au, Wei-Chun et al. (2013) Yeast hEST1A/B (SMG5/6)-Like Proteins Contribute to Environment-Sensing Adaptive Gene Expression Responses. G3 (Bethesda) 3:1649-59
Haase, Julian; Mishra, Prashant K; Stephens, Andrew et al. (2013) A 3D map of the yeast kinetochore reveals the presence of core and accessory centromere-specific histone. Curr Biol 23:1939-44
Mishra, Prashant K; Ottmann, Alicia R; Basrai, Munira A (2013) Structural integrity of centromeric chromatin and faithful chromosome segregation requires pat1. Genetics 195:369-79

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