Cancer Genome Anatomy Project (CGAP)/Cancer Genome Characterization Initiative (CGCI) CGAP is an online resource designed to provide the research community access a wide range of genomic data that include gene expression profiles of normal, precancerous, and cancerous cells based on expressed sequence tags (EST) and serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE), single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis of cancer-related genes, and the Mitelman database of chromosomal aberrations in cancer. CGCI incorporates multiple genomic characterization methods including exome and transcriptome analysis using second-generation sequencing. To encourage collaboration and leverage the collective knowledge and innovation of the entire cancer research community, all data collected are made publicly available through caBIG compatible databases. By collaborating with scientists worldwide, CGAP and CGCI seek to increase its scientific expertise and expand its databases for the benefit of all cancer researchers. Access to all CGAP and CGCI data, clones, and analytic tools is made available to the research community through the CGAP/CGCI Web site. Cancer Target Discovery and Development (CTD) Network The CTD Network is aimed at developing new scientific approaches to accelerate the translation of genomic discoveries into new treatments. Recent progress in the development of multi-dimensional characterization data sets that compare tumor and normal tissue genomes from the same individual has led to unprecedented detail of the molecular alterations that serve as driver mutations that lead to cancer. The integration of these data sets with biological information from basic research is providing new directions for developing treatment strategies that target the specific molecular changes in a patients disease, moving away from a one-size-fits-all approach. It requires relating the genetic features of cancers to acquired gene and pathway dependencies and identifying small-molecule therapeutics that target them. The network emphasizes interaction of laboratories with complementary and unique technical expertise in areas such as bioinformatics, genome-wide loss of function screening, targeted gain-of-function gene validations, mouse-based screening and small molecule high-throughput screening. Therapeutically Applicable Research to Generate Effective Treatments (TARGET) The TARGET initiative is committed to focusing genomics tools to rapidly identify potential therapeutic targets in childhood cancers so that new, more effective treatments can be developed in shorter time and ultimately bring new hope to children and their families who face the devastating burden of these diseases. The initiative seeks to identify the genomic changes associated with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL);acute myeloid leukemia (AML);neuroblastoma;osteosarcoma and Wilms tumor. The research conducted by TARGET is divided into three distinct yet tightly integrated components that together form a system for selecting new molecular targets for the development of novel therapies for these childhood cancers via genomic characterization, gene sequencing, and identification of therapeutic targets. Cancer Genetic Markers of Susceptibility (CGEMS) CGEMS has developed into a successful research program of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) to identify genetic variants that affect a persons risk of developing cancer. The program relies upon populations from the NCI Cohort Consortium as well as collaborative case-control epidemiologic studies with biospecimens. The large-scale consortia make it possible to combine resources in a coordinated intramural-extramural approach that enables rapid replication of positive findings using independent data sets. The pooling of data sets provides the statistical power to quantify the risks associated with specific gene variants and environmental exposures, and enables analyses that uncover gene-gene and gene-environment interactions. Consortia also provide an opportunity for NCI to partner with other NIH Institutes to investigate cancer together with other complex diseases and traits including diabetes, cardiovascular, neurological disorders, obesity, and smoking behaviors. CGEMS makes data available to both intramural and extramural research scientists (including those in the private sector) through rapid posting to ensure that the dramatic advances in genomics are incorporated into rigorous population-based studies. The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) The National Institutes of Health (NIH) established The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) to generate comprehensive, multi-dimensional maps of the key genomic changes in major types and subtypes of cancer. This catalog serves as a powerful resource for a new generation of research aimed at developing better strategies for diagnosing, treating and preventing each type of cancer. The National Cancer Institute (NCI) and National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI) announced in September 2009 that TCGA will produce comprehensive genomic maps of at least 20 types of cancer over the next five years. The pilot project was managed for NCI by the Office of Cancer Genomics. The pilot effort developed the policies, production pipeline, collaborative research network, databases and analytical tools necessary for TCGAs large-scale study of cancer genomics. The pilots characterizations of brain tumors and ovarian cancer have shown that this systematic, high-volume approach can generate unprecedented amounts of data of unequalled quality data that are quickly being integrated into the work of basic and clinical researchers around the globe. Initiative for Chemical Genetics (ICG) The NCIs Initiative for Chemical Genetics provides a systematic approach to study biology using such small molecules, to develop new screening tools and compounds, and to accelerate the development of new cancer strategies and therapies. As detailed below, the ICG focuses efforts on a number of deliverables, including biological assays, chemical libraries, a repository of chemical probes, and a scientific database. Discoveries made through the ICG program to date have resulted in more than 100 publications and 17 patents. NIH Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC) The goal of the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC), a trans-NIH initiative, was to provide full-length open reading frame (FL-ORF) clones for human, mouse, cow, and rat genes. MGC is part of the ORFeome Collaboration (OC), which was formed to provide the research community with sequence-validated, full-ORF human cDNA clones in the Gateway vector format, allowing easy transfer of the ORF sequences into nearly any type of expression vector. MGC infrastructure and protocols are also being applied to two other gene collection projects: Xenopus laevis and Xenopus tropicalis (XGC) and Danio rerio (ZGC). The XGC and ZGC are NIH initiatives that support the production of cDNA libraries, clones, and sequences to provide a set of full-length (open reading frame) sequences and cDNA clones of expressed genes for Xenopus (both X. laevis and X. tropicalis) for the XGC and zebrafish for the ZGC. All resources generated by the XGC are publicly accessible to the biomedical research community.

National Institute of Health (NIH)
National Cancer Institute (NCI)
Investigator-Initiated Intramural Research Projects (ZIA)
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