In this year, we were focused on two major sub-projects. First, using high-speed monitoring of EEG and EMG in freely moving rats, we demonstrated that intravenous (iv)nicotine induced rapid cortical and VTA EEG desynchronization and motor activation that occur within the time-course of injection. We also showed that a similar rapid response could be elicited by both nicotine-pirrolidine methiodide that cannot cross the blood-brain barrier. The nicotine-induced electrophysiological effects were strongly attenuated by hexamethonium, a blocker of peripheral nicotinic receptors. Therefore, it appears that rapid activation induced by iv nicotine is triggered via activation of peripheral neural substrates. We also show that the peripherally triggered effects of nicotine are conditioned and peripherally acting nicotine analogue induces conditioned behavioral and neural activation. The second sub-project, which was initiated during this year, is focused on reliable detection of glutamate (GLU) in the brain of freely moving rats. Currently, we are working to resolve several technical problems related to the use and performance of enzyme-coated electrochemical electrodes. We also examined changes in GLU levels following exposure to various environmental stimuli and intravenous cocaine. This work will be expanded during the next years to include other detected substances and the use of more complicated behavioral paradigms that involve the use of addictive drugs.

Project Start
Project End
Budget Start
Budget End
Support Year
Fiscal Year
Total Cost
Indirect Cost
National Institute on Drug Abuse
Zip Code
Solis Jr, Ernesto; Afzal, Anum; Kiyatkin, Eugene A (2018) Changes in brain oxygen and glucose induced by oxycodone: Relationships with brain temperature and peripheral vascular tone. Neuropharmacology 133:481-490
Solis Jr, Ernesto; Bola, R Aaron; Fasulo, Bradley J et al. (2017) Brain Hyperglycemia Induced by Heroin: Association with Metabolic Neural Activation. ACS Chem Neurosci 8:265-271
Solis Jr, Ernesto; Cameron-Burr, Keaton T; Kiyatkin, Eugene A (2017) Heroin Contaminated with Fentanyl Dramatically Enhances Brain Hypoxia and Induces Brain Hypothermia. eNeuro 4:
Solis Jr, Ernesto; Cameron-Burr, Keaton T; Shaham, Yavin et al. (2017) Intravenous Heroin Induces Rapid Brain Hypoxia and Hyperglycemia that Precede Brain Metabolic Response. eNeuro 4:
Bola, R Aaron; Kiyatkin, Eugene A (2017) Brain temperature effects of intravenous heroin: State dependency, environmental modulation, and the effects of dose. Neuropharmacology 126:271-280
Solis, Ernesto; Cameron-Burr, Keaton T; Shaham, Yavin et al. (2017) Fentanyl-Induced Brain Hypoxia Triggers Brain Hyperglycemia and Biphasic Changes in Brain Temperature. Neuropsychopharmacology :
Solis Jr, Ernesto; Cameron-Burr, Keaton T; Kiyatkin, Eugene A (2017) Rapid Physiological Fluctuations in Nucleus Accumbens Oxygen Levels Induced by Arousing Stimuli: Relationships with Changes in Brain Glucose and Metabolic Neural Activation. Front Integr Neurosci 11:9
Bola, R Aaron; Kiyatkin, Eugene A (2016) Robust Brain Hyperglycemia during General Anesthesia: Relationships with Metabolic Brain Inhibition and Vasodilation. Front Physiol 7:39
Wakabayashi, Ken T; Spekterman, Laurence; Kiyatkin, Eugene A (2016) Experience-dependent escalation of glucose drinking and the development of glucose preference over fructose - association with glucose entry into the brain. Eur J Neurosci 43:1422-30
Wakabayashi, Ken T; Kiyatkin, Eugene A (2015) Central and peripheral contributions to dynamic changes in nucleus accumbens glucose induced by intravenous cocaine. Front Neurosci 9:42

Showing the most recent 10 out of 27 publications