Progress in FY2019 includes the following: In order to study the specific cells, sites, tissues, and transmitters by which BRS-3 acts, we have generated a floxed Brs3 mouse. The floxed mice allow determination of necessity of Brs3 in the particular cells by selective loss of function upon Cre-driven recombination. We have also generated loxTB-Brs3 mice, which allow selective re-activation of Brs3 by Cre to determine the sufficiency of Brs3 in the particular cells. Last, we have generated Brs3-Cre mice, in which Cre is expressed in the same pattern as endogenous Brs3. Brs3-Cre mice are being used to selectively activate or inhibit specific subsets of Brs3 neurons using chemogenetics and optogenetics. In late 2018, we reported that acute activation of Brs3-expressing neurons in the dorsomedial hypothalamus (DMHBrs3) increased body temperature (Tb), brown adipose tissue temperature, energy expenditure, heart rate, and blood pressure, with no effect on food intake or physical activity. Conversely, activation of Brs3 neurons in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus had no effect on Tb or energy expenditure, but suppressed food intake. Inhibition of DMHBrs3 neurons decreased Tb and energy expenditure, suggesting a necessary role in Tb regulation. We found that the preoptic area provides major input (excitatory and inhibitory) to DMHBrs3 neurons. Optogenetic stimulation of DMHBrs3 projections to the raphe pallidus increased Tb. Thus, DMHBrs3 raphe pallidus neurons regulate Tb, energy expenditure, and heart rate, and Brs3 neurons in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus regulate food intake. Brs3 expression is a useful marker for delineating energy metabolism regulatory circuitry.

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Xiao, Cuiying; Piñol, Ramón A; Carlin, Jesse Lea et al. (2018) Corrigendum to ""Bombesin-like receptor 3 (Brs3) expression in glutamatergic, but not GABAergic, neurons is required for regulation of energy metabolism"" [Mol Metabol 6 (2017) 1540-1550]. Mol Metab 9:220
Piñol, Ramón A; Zahler, Sebastian H; Li, Chia et al. (2018) Brs3 neurons in the mouse dorsomedial hypothalamus regulate body temperature, energy expenditure, and heart rate, but not food intake. Nat Neurosci 21:1530-1540
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Lateef, Dalya M; Xiao, Cuiying; Reitman, Marc L (2015) Search for an Endogenous Bombesin-Like Receptor 3 (BRS-3) Ligand Using Parabiotic Mice. PLoS One 10:e0142637
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Moreno, Paola; Mantey, Samuel A; Nuche-Berenguer, Bernardo et al. (2013) Comparative pharmacology of bombesin receptor subtype-3, nonpeptide agonist MK-5046, a universal peptide agonist, and peptide antagonist Bantag-1 for human bombesin receptors. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 347:100-16
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Chobanian, Harry R; Guo, Yan; Liu, Ping et al. (2012) The design and synthesis of potent, selective benzodiazepine sulfonamide bombesin receptor subtype 3 (BRS-3) agonists with an increased barrier of atropisomerization. Bioorg Med Chem 20:2845-9

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