We are designing a non-invasive approach to detect and monitor circadian rhythms in order to personalize chronomodulated drug delivery schedules in cancer patients. Since core body temperature is a robust circadian biomarker, we recorded temperature continuously at multiple locations on the skin of the upper chest and back of controls and cancer patients. Variability in the circadian phase existed among patch locations in individual subjects over the course of 2-6 days, demonstrating the need to monitor multiple skin temperature locations to determine the precise circadian phase. Additionally, we observed that locations identified by infrared imaging as relatively cool had the largest 24 h temperature variations. Disruptions in skin temperature rhythms during treatment were found, pointing to the need to continually assess circadian timing and personalize chronotherapeutic schedules. We also show that a mobile phone can serve as an accurate monitor for several physiological variables, based on its ability to record and analyze the varying color signals of a fingertip placed in contact with its optical sensor. We confirm the accuracy of measurements of breathing rate, cardiac R-R intervals, and blood oxygen saturation, by comparisons to standard methods for making such measurements (respiration belts, ECGs, and pulse-oximeters, respectively). Measurement of respiratory rate uses a previously reported algorithm developed for use with a pulse-oximeter, based on amplitude and frequency modulation sequences within the light signal.

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National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering
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Scully, Christopher G; Lee, Jinseok; Meyer, Joseph et al. (2012) Physiological parameter monitoring from optical recordings with a mobile phone. IEEE Trans Biomed Eng 59:303-6
Scully, Christopher G; Karaboué, Abdoulaye; Liu, Wei-Min et al. (2011) Skin surface temperature rhythms as potential circadian biomarkers for personalized chronotherapeutics in cancer patients. Interface Focus 1:48-60