Whereas traditional models for gene regulation posit that recruitment of Pol II to the promoter is both necessary and sufficient for gene expression, we have recently found that release of paused Pol II from the promoter-proximal region is rate-limiting for expression of a large number of genes. Our initial work investigated the prevalence of paused Pol II in Drosophila, employing a combination of global location analysis (using techniques called ChIP-chip and ChIP-seq) as well as in vivo footprinting assays. Surprisingly, these data showed that Pol II pausing is much more widespread than previously appreciated, occurring at thousands of promoters genome-wide. We and others have recently extended these findings to mammalian systems (mouse and human), demonstrating that pausing a prevalent gene regulatory strategy in higher organisms. Moreover, our results reveal that Pol II is pre-loaded in the uninduced state at many genes that respond to environmental or developmental stimuli, suggesting that the presence of Pol II, poised for escape into the gene, facilitates efficient, integrated responses to a dynamically changing environment. Understanding the fundamental properties of paused Pol II, and the factors that govern maintenance vs. release of promoter-proximal Pol II into productive elongation are specific aims of research in the Adelman laboratory. In addition to providing crucial insight into stress-responses, this work is anticipated to elucidate gene expression during the development of cancer and AIDS, since similarly paused Pol II are observed at the mammalian promoters of proto-oncogenes like c-myc, c-fos and junB, as well as at the HIV promoter. As part of our efforts to better define the mechanisms underlying pausing, we have recently developed a novel technique for isolating the short RNA transcripts generated by paused Pol II, and analyzed them through massively-parallel sequencing of individual RNA molecules. This strategy allowed us to pinpoint both the locations of transcription initiation and pausing, at single-nucleotide resolution. Notably, this exciting new technique revealed a role for the DNA sequence within the initially transcribed region in specifying the efficiency of early elongation, providing insights into why polymerase pausing is more prominent at some genes than at others. In probing the molecular mechanisms governing Pol II stalling, the Negative ELongation Factor, or NELF complex, is of particular interest to the laboratory. NELF has been shown to establish paused Pol II at several genes to date, including the junB and HIV promoters. To globally identify targets of NELF, we have performed a microarray analysis on Drosophila cells that were depleted of NELF using RNA interference. We found that many NELF target genes are involved in stimulus-responsive pathways, with a particular enrichment in the innate immune response. To evaluate the physiological relevance of this finding, we have recently performed NELF depletion in the Drosophila fat body (the main immune responsive tissue), followed by microarray analysis of RNA levels to identify NELF target genes. This work confirms that NELF plays a key role in vivo in regulating expression of components of the innate immune system. Follow-up studies in both cells and flies revealed that NELF-mediated Pol II pausing is essential for an optimal immune response to bacterial challenge and indicated that polymerase pausing is necessary for either the binding or activity of the NF-kB transcription factor Relish (Rel). This result is consistent with our earlier suggestion that Pol II pausing helps establish a nucleosome-deprived, accessible chromatin architecture around gene promoters, facilitating future activation. In addition to our work in Drosophila, we are studying the role of polymerase pausing in the mammalian inflammatory response, using primary macrophages derived from mouse. These investigations reveal that many immediate early response genes, like TNF-alpha and junB, possess paused Pol II waiting in their promoter regions in resting, uninduced cells. In contrast, late primary and secondary response genes generally lack stalled Pol II and NELF prior to induction. Overall, we find that there is an interesting relationship between the presence of paused Pol II and the kinetics of the immune response, in that paused genes exhibit much more transient bursts of transcription activity than do genes regulated through Pol II recruitment. This suggests that there could be a fundamental link between gene regulatory strategy (i.e. the step in the transcription cycle that is rate-limiting for gene expression) and the kinetics or magnitude of gene expression.

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Scruggs, Benjamin S; Gilchrist, Daniel A; Nechaev, Sergei et al. (2015) Bidirectional Transcription Arises from Two Distinct Hubs of Transcription Factor Binding and Active Chromatin. Mol Cell 58:1101-12
Scruggs, Benjamin S; Adelman, Karen (2015) The Importance of Controlling Transcription Elongation at Coding and Noncoding RNA Loci. Cold Spring Harb Symp Quant Biol 80:33-44
Williams, Lucy H; Fromm, George; Gokey, Nolan G et al. (2015) Pausing of RNA polymerase II regulates mammalian developmental potential through control of signaling networks. Mol Cell 58:311-322
Rogatsky, Inez; Adelman, Karen (2014) Preparing the first responders: building the inflammatory transcriptome from the ground up. Mol Cell 54:245-54
Gupte, Rebecca; Muse, Ginger W; Chinenov, Yurii et al. (2013) Glucocorticoid receptor represses proinflammatory genes at distinct steps of the transcription cycle. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 110:14616-21
Schröder, Sebastian; Herker, Eva; Itzen, Friederike et al. (2013) Acetylation of RNA polymerase II regulates growth-factor-induced gene transcription in mammalian cells. Mol Cell 52:314-24
Henriques, Telmo; Adelman, Karen (2013) Catching the waves: following the leading edge of elongating RNA polymerase II. Mol Cell 50:159-60
Fromm, George; Gilchrist, Daniel A; Adelman, Karen (2013) SnapShot: Transcription regulation: pausing. Cell 153:930-930.e1
Henriques, Telmo; Gilchrist, Daniel A; Nechaev, Sergei et al. (2013) Stable pausing by RNA polymerase II provides an opportunity to target and integrate regulatory signals. Mol Cell 52:517-28
Gilchrist, Daniel A; Adelman, Karen (2012) Coupling polymerase pausing and chromatin landscapes for precise regulation of transcription. Biochim Biophys Acta 1819:700-6

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