A unifying theme emerging from our work is that in neuroimaging, as in life, the journey is often as important as the destination. Trajectories of brain morphometry, as opposed to snapshots in time, are more highly correlated with cognitive parameters, are better predictors of clinical outcome, and more robustly distinguish groups classified by genotype. To capture the path of development we follow people throughout their life by having them return for participation at approximately two-year intervals. During their visit to the NIH participants are assessed in three realms: (1) Brain Imaging, (2) Neuropsychology, and (3) Genetics. Brain imaging. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) combines a powerful magnet, radio waves, and sophisticated computer technology to create exquisitely accurate pictures of the anatomy and physiology of the brain. It does this without the use of ionizing radiation making it safe for scans of people of all ages. The scans are processed through a series of ever improving image analysis tools developed by collaborators throughout the world. The output of the analytic tools allows us to compare the anatomy and physiology of brains between groups or within an individual over time. By morphing between images acquired at different ages we can create movies of brain development as can be seen at www.nimh.nih.gov/videos/press/prbrainmaturing.mpeg. Neuropsychology. For our studies of typical development we begin with an initial phone screening followed by questionnaires mailed to parents and teachers and then the in-person visit to the NIH. Once accepted into the study participants undergo a collection of psychological tests, including a standard IQ test. The specifics of the testing vary by diagnostic group but in general cover domains of language, executive, and social functions. Genetics. We request that participants provide a DNA sample via a blood draw (in which lymphoblasts can be immortalized to provide genetic testing for ongoing future analysis) or if they prefer not to have a blood draw via saliva. By combining data from these three realms we hope to gain insight into the dynamic interplay between brains, genes, and behavior in the developing brain. Key Findings and Recent Results from Project 1 - Mapping Developmental Trajectories of Brain and Behavior in Health and Illness Prior work from our group has shown that brain developmental is characterized by increases in white matter volumes and inverted U shaped trajectories for cortical and subcortical gray matter structures with relatively late maturation of higher association areas such as superior temporal lobe and the prefrontal cortex. Prior investigations have also elucidated deviations from typical developmental trajectories for several clinical populations. Publications in the past year utilized: (1) graph theory approaches to examine changes in connectivity Refs 11-13;(2) advances in image analysis methodology that allow parcellation of cortical volume into its constituents of surface area and thickness in healthy subjects Refs 6,9,10,16;and (3) multimodal imaging incorporating magnetization transfer imaging in Autism Ref 5. Also, in the past year we: (4) summarized advances in the neurodevelopmental model of schizophrenia Ref 8;(5) examined the relationship between cortical surface area, cortical thickness, and cortical volume during typical development Ref 10;(6) reported a relationship between the size and shape of the basal ganglia and repetitive behavior in autism spectrum disorder Ref 17;(7) demonstrated differences in developmental trajectories of the corpus callosum between children with ADHD vs controls Ref 20;(8) described age-related temporal and parietal cortical thinning in autism spectrum disorders Ref 7;and (9) used cortical thickness development data to support a dimensional view of ADHD Ref 21. Key Findings and Recent Results from Project 2 - Male/Female Differences in Brain Development Sexual dimorphism of the developing brain is especially pertinent for child psychiatry because nearly all neuropsychiatric disorders of childhood demonstrate male/female differences with respect to age of onset, prevalence, and symptom patterns. Prior work from our lab characterizing male/female differences in typical pediatric brain development has been amongst the most cited in the field. Publications within the past year have: (1) examined dosage effects of X and Y chromosomes on language social functioning Ref 2 and;(2) characterized executive function in Klinefelter (XXY) Syndrome with and without comorbid ADHD Ref 18. Key Findings and Recent Results from Project 3 - Genetic and Environmental Influences on Brain Development By comparing how alike identical twins (monozygotic) are to how alike fraternal twins (dizygotic) are we can begin to quantify the extent to which differences are due to genetic or environmental factors. Current sample size from the ongoing longitudinal study is approximately 300 twin pairs. Studies of specific genes and environmental factors allow exploration of the mechanisms and influences on brain development. Understanding influences on trajectories of brain development may shed light on the emergence of psychopathology during childhood and adolescence and ultimately may guide therapeutic interventions Prior work from our group established that: (1) heritability is high and shared environmental effects low for most brain morphometric measures;(2) the cerebellum has a distinct heritability profile;(3) genetic and environmental factors contribute to the development of the cortex in a regional and age specific manner;and (4) shared genetic effects account for more of the variance than structure specific effects. Multivariate analyses indicate that 60% of cortical thickness variance is accounted for by a single genetic factor and that five distinct groups of brain measures are influenced by shared genetic and environmental factors. Publications in the past year have: (1) examined the effects of genetic variation on developmental trajectories of anatomic brain development Refs 4,10,15;(2) reviewed developmental considerations of gene by environment interactions Ref 19;(3) examined the effect of parental age on cortical development Ref 14;and (4) speculated on the interaction of adolescent neurobiology and digital revolution Ref 1. Impact: The project has generated over 250 papers and 20,000 citations since its inception in 1989. Results of the studies, particularly regarding adolescent brain development, have generated wide spread public interest and discussion affecting social, educational, and judicial realms. The findings have helped spawn other research initiatives, both nationally and internationally, to replicate and extend the findings. Data from the typically developing children and adolescents have been widely used as a comparison group for clinical populations. Collaborative studies have been published with over 400 different investigators representing over 50 universities. The long term nature of the study, the emphasis on typical development, and extensive data sharing/collaboration make the Brain Imaging projects well-suited for the Intramural program.

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Joseph, Lisa; Farmer, Cristan; Chlebowski, Colby et al. (2018) Characterization of autism spectrum disorder and neurodevelopmental profiles in youth with XYY syndrome. J Neurodev Disord 10:30
Reardon, P K; Seidlitz, Jakob; Vandekar, Simon et al. (2018) Normative brain size variation and brain shape diversity in humans. Science 360:1222-1227
Fish, Ari M; Cachia, Arnaud; Fischer, Clara et al. (2017) Influences of Brain Size, Sex, and Sex Chromosome Complement on the Architecture of Human Cortical Folding. Cereb Cortex 27:5557-5567
Lin, Amy; Clasen, Liv; Lee, Nancy Raitano et al. (2015) Mapping the stability of human brain asymmetry across five sex-chromosome aneuploidies. J Neurosci 35:140-5
Adeyemi, Elizabeth I; Giedd, Jay N; Lee, Nancy Raitano (2015) A case study of brain morphometry in triplets discordant for Down syndrome. Am J Med Genet A 167A:1107-10
Jacobus, Joanna; Squeglia, Lindsay M; Meruelo, Alejandro D et al. (2015) Cortical thickness in adolescent marijuana and alcohol users: A three-year prospective study from adolescence to young adulthood. Dev Cogn Neurosci 16:101-109
Wallace, Gregory L; Eisenberg, Ian W; Robustelli, Briana et al. (2015) Longitudinal cortical development during adolescence and young adulthood in autism spectrum disorder: increased cortical thinning but comparable surface area changes. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 54:464-9
Hanley, Alli P; Blumenthal, Jonathan D; Raitano Lee, Nancy et al. (2015) Brain and behavior in 48, XXYY syndrome. Neuroimage Clin 8:133-9
Giedd, Jay N; Raznahan, Armin; Alexander-Bloch, Aaron et al. (2015) Child psychiatry branch of the National Institute of Mental Health longitudinal structural magnetic resonance imaging study of human brain development. Neuropsychopharmacology 40:43-9
Lee, Nancy Raitano; Adeyemi, Elizabeth I; Lin, Amy et al. (2015) Dissociations in Cortical Morphometry in Youth with Down Syndrome: Evidence for Reduced Surface Area but Increased Thickness. Cereb Cortex :

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