We are continuing to provide a full range of histo-pathological services for DIR scientists. 1. Histology procedures, such as fixed tissue embedding, sectioning and histology staining. For this purpose, we receive samples in fixative or fresh. These are processed in our facility and embedded in paraffin or OCT component for either paraffin or frozen sections. The tissue sample can be cut as routine 5 micron thick sections mounted on glass slides, serial sections through entire organ or embryo, or mixed with thick (20-100 micron) and thin (5-10 micron) step sections upon request. We perform routine histology staining with Hematoxylin and Eosin according to Mayer and Harris methods. In addition, we also perform special histology staining, including PAS, Masson tri-chrome, Movat, Elastic Van Gison and Oil-O red stain. All these services are performed by the Core staff and finished in a timely manner. Most requests are completed within a two week period. In FY-2010, we provided these services for a total of 121 requests by 32 customers from 16 PIs/ laboratories. We produced 2,117 tissue blocks and 16,862 histology slides, usually with 2 or 3 tissue sections on it. There were 2,644 slides stained with Hematoxylin and Eosin for routine histology. We also performed 1,912 slides for other specific procedures as mentioned above. The most frequent requests were from the group of Pulmonary and Vascular Medicine Branch. A total of 37 requests included 747 experimental mouse lungs. 7,172 slides were cut, out of which 1,337 were stained with H &E and PAS;from Laboratory of Cardiac Energetics, with14 requests, 33 samples, and 2,219 slides of step sections with 344 stained;and from Laboratory of Biochemical Genetics, with 13 requests, 175 tissue blocks, 1,211 slides and 306 stained sections. 2. Diagnostic pathology. For this service, Core head is involved in discussion of experiments design and sample collection methods. We provide histology products such as stained histology slides, evaluate the results and make a scoring sheet with representative photographs. In most cases, this service will contribute to manuscript submission and we will provide final microscopic figures. We had these services for 9 scientists including histopathological diagnosis, histology evaluations with histology score system and provided final images for publications. These services are listed in the Table as *other service. This resulted in 3 publications in 2010. 3. Training, consultation and trouble shooting for DIR scientists and fellows in the fields of histopathology and immuno-histochemistry. We provide training for tissue processing, embedding and sectioning for paraffin and frozen samples. In addition, we also offer the test for antibodies and for immuno-staining procedures and consultation for immuno-staining problems. We have trained 4 scientists/students for cutting paraffin or frozen sections, for tissue processing and for immunohistochemstry. 3. Improve of Pathology Core work quality From the Steering Committee feedback in 2009, there is some concern about our product quality. We have discussed the issues with our staff and required all staff to understand the problems. Since then, we have been more careful at tissue handling, processing and following the procedures. We improved for our works specifically as followed: 1) We have started using slide printers to print glass slide label instead of hand writing. This will give us clear and accurate tissue identification. This is not only made slides better looking but also improved accuracy of labeling to avoid confusion. In addition, this will be compatible with future sample databases with barcode systems. We also purchased a tissue cassette label printer in 2010. After all of these efforts, we now able to make all digital input and output through our products with printed labels, since these labels can be used to transfer the information from tissue containers to cassettes and to slide directly to avoid human error. 2) Update cutting and staining procedures. We have synchronized all our routine and specific staining procedures, in particularly, for accurate procedure times, temperatures and specific tissue handlings. Now, our products are much more stable and the results are good and are satisfied by our customers. For sectioning, all staff understands the requests and follows the work sheet instructions. Keep Log book and document for sample acceptance, processing and project completion date. 3) Personally contact DIR scientists, arranging meeting if necessary to convince them to submit their histopathology requests to our Core. Core Head met the PIs who had previous concerns about our product quality. We discussed the problems and got agreements to try the new procedures. Since then, the scientists are willing to send more tissue samples for to us. We also contacted other PIs and laboratories in addition to our regular customers to encourage them to use our core facility. 4) As part of the request from our Steering Committee, Pathology Core Facility now finished updating the Pathology Core Standard Operating Procedures. The SOP includes general policy, tissue handling and processing procedures, manuals for all laboratory equipment and staining procedures. The SOP book is located in the Core Facility and all staffs are following these procedures.

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