All the functions of the brain, functions such as our sensations, love, hate etc. depend, in the last instance, on the transfer of signals from one nerve cell to another. The main process of synaptic transmission of signals involves the release of a chemical substance (neurotransmitter) from one neuron and its action on neurotransmitter receptors located in the neighboring nerve cells. Essentially, the interaction of a neurotransmitter with its receptor either stimulates or inhibits the neuron. The main inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, including that of humans, is a simple chemical called ?-amino butyric acid (GABA). This neurotransmitter was known to act on two types of GABA-receptors (GABAA and GABAB); and a few years ago a new type of GABA receptor was discovered (GABAC). The main purpose of this research is to determine the structural and functional characteristics of GABAC receptors, to determine their localization in the brain, and to search for new members of the GABAC family of receptors. The basic scientific information obtained will lead to a better understanding of how the brain works and will also serve as a first step towards the rational design of new medicinal drugs, targeted specifically to GABAC receptors.