Loss of sight is a major fear and significantly compromise to the quality of life among the elderly. Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the most common cause of irreversible blindness. There is no cure for this devastating disease. Costs associated with AMD are in the $billions per year in the US alone. It is imperative that means to delay the onset or progress of AMD be found soon because the number of people afflicted is growing so rapidly. New information from three large human cohorts indicates that consuming lower glycemic index diets (GI) is associated with a lower risk for all grades of AMD as well as for delayed onset or progress of early AMD. This information suggests that slightly limiting intake of readily digested carbohydrate, or simulating such dietary practice, may provide a means to delay the onset and progress of all stages of AMD or even prevent it. Slowing AMD progression, particularly at early stages, by as little as 10-20% can delay vision loss for 5-10 years. Prior to initiating costly intervention trials, it is essential to replicate these findings in controlled animal trials and learn about the mechanism of how consuming lower GI diets protects the retina. Our pilot animal studies indicate that consuming lower GI diets results in delayed accumulation of early AMD-related retina lesions. This is also associated with less protein modification by sugars (glycation). Glycated proteins are toxic and related to AMD development. Furthermore, biochemical studies indicate that the cellular proteolytic capacities that normally eliminate cytotoxic proteins are compromised by glycation. In order to exploit these data, it is crucial to understand the patho-biochemical relationship between consuming higher GI diets, appearance of early AMD-related lesions, accumulation of cytotoxic glycated proteins, and the fidelity of the protein editing, proteolytic machinery. In this work we will test the hypothesis that early AMD-like lesions will be delayed, glycative stress diminished, and proteolytic functions that remove glycated proteins retained in mice that consume lower GI diets or when activators of the ubiquitin or lysosomal proteolytic pathways are employed. Such etiologic and mechanistic information will substantiate the benefit of lower GI diets and pave the way for intervention trials. The information is also essential for designing new interventions (dietary and pharmaceutical) that will diminish the AMD burden.
The first Aim i s to define the relationship between dietary GI, risk for early AMD lesions, and protein glycation. Because AMD is related to compromised protein quality in the RPE and its environs, the focus of Aim 2 will be novel experiments to define relationships between accumulation of glycated proteins and the fidelity of the protein quality control machinery, using RPE from the animal models and differentiated RPE.
In Aim 3 we will try new drugs to diminish carbohydrate-induced stress and prolong retinal function. Due to the similarity of the response of many cells to glycative stress and the similar protein quality control in many cells it is anticipated that our observations and discoveries will impact many disciplines and have major health ramifications. This includes heart disease and type 2 diabetes, both of which have been related to dietary carbohydrate intake.
We will address the major NIH objective of understanding the molecular and biochemical bases for AMD, characterizing environmental effects on its etiology, and developing new treatments and preventative interventions by substantiating recent epidemiologic reports that indicate that eating lower glycemic index diets diminishes risk for early AMD, elucidating the mechanism of this health benefit, and trying new drugs to mimic what we think are the effects of consuming the lower GI diets. The mechanistic studies will also inform about the design of novel nutraceuticals or new drugs which capture the salutary effects of consuming lower GI diets to diminish the risk for AMD. The carbohydrate content of our diets has doubled in the last 30 years and most of that is rapidly degraded high glycemic index carbohydrate. The data will also help diminish risk for type 2 diabetes and CVD because the risk for these diseases is also related to dietary glycemic index.
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