This application is a revised competing renewal for a K24 Mid-Career Scientist Award in Patient-Oriented Research. The original period of this award, which ends on June 30, 2014, focused broadly on understanding the mechanisms underlying elevated risk for cigarette smoking in individuals with ADHD, and specifically on neurobiological and genetic factors that may contribute to this risk. Consistent with the overall objectives of the K24 mechanism, the award aims emphasized the mentorship of junior investigators in patient-oriented research as it pertains to cigarette smoking. During the original project period, we were highly successful across the research, career development, and mentorship aims. As such, the overall goal of this competing renewal application is to extend our work on the common comorbidity between smoking/nicotine dependence in individuals with ADHD. In particular, we will apply the findings of our mechanistic work supported by the original project to the development of novel approaches to smoking cessation and prevention for this common and costly comorbidity. In particular, the scientific and career development goals of this application will be to characterize and evaluate the construct of motivation as it pertains to smoking in individuals with ADHD. Along with relevant faculty colleagues at Duke, Dr. Kollins will explore motivational processes from several different perspectives in smokers with and without ADHD. Consistent with the broad goals of the K24 mechanism, these aims will also provide a rich environment for the continued mentorship of junior investigators.

Public Health Relevance

Individual with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is more likely to smoke cigarettes than the general population. They are also more likely to become regular smokers more quickly following initial use. Little is known about why individuals with ADHD are at increased risk for smoking or what the best ways to prevent or treat smoking might be. This proposed project will help develop more effective ways to prevent and treat smoking in individuals with ADHD and will also help train a new generation of investigators to study this important and costly problem.

National Institute of Health (NIH)
National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA)
Midcareer Investigator Award in Patient-Oriented Research (K24)
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Study Section
Risk, Prevention and Intervention for Addictions Study Section (RPIA)
Program Officer
Lin, Yu
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Duke University
Schools of Medicine
United States
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Mitchell, John T; Weisner, Thomas S; Jensen, Peter S et al. (2018) How Substance Users With ADHD Perceive the Relationship Between Substance Use and Emotional Functioning. J Atten Disord 22:49S-60S
Gao, Lu; Liu, Xiaochen; Millstein, Joshua et al. (2018) Self-reported prenatal tobacco smoke exposure, AXL gene-body methylation, and childhood asthma phenotypes. Clin Epigenetics 10:98
Schechter, Julia C; Fuemmeler, Bernard F; Hoyo, Cathrine et al. (2018) Impact of Smoking Ban on Passive Smoke Exposure in Pregnant Non-Smokers in the Southeastern United States. Int J Environ Res Public Health 15:
Sweitzer, Maggie M; Kollins, Scott H; Kozink, Rachel V et al. (2018) ADHD, Smoking Withdrawal, and Inhibitory Control: Results of a Neuroimaging Study with Methylphenidate Challenge. Neuropsychopharmacology 43:851-858
Mitchell, John T; Howard, Andrea L; Belendiuk, Katherine A et al. (2018) Cigarette Smoking Progression among Young Adults Diagnosed with ADHD in Childhood: A 16-year Longitudinal Study of Children with and without ADHD. Nicotine Tob Res :
Mitchell, John T; McIntyre, Elizabeth M; English, Joseph S et al. (2017) A Pilot Trial of Mindfulness Meditation Training for ADHD in Adulthood: Impact on Core Symptoms, Executive Functioning, and Emotion Dysregulation. J Atten Disord 21:1105-1120
Schechter, Julia C; Kollins, Scott H (2017) Prenatal Smoke Exposure and ADHD: Advancing the Field. Pediatrics 139:
Schoenfelder, Erin N; Kollins, Scott H (2016) Topical Review: ADHD and Health-Risk Behaviors: Toward Prevention and Health Promotion. J Pediatr Psychol 41:735-40
Mitchell, John T; Sweitzer, Maggie M; Tunno, Angela M et al. (2016) ""I Use Weed for My ADHD"": A Qualitative Analysis of Online Forum Discussions on Cannabis Use and ADHD. PLoS One 11:e0156614
Lunsford-Avery, Jessica R; Krystal, Andrew D; Kollins, Scott H (2016) Sleep disturbances in adolescents with ADHD: A systematic review and framework for future research. Clin Psychol Rev 50:159-174

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