We plan to extend studies with our so far (greater than 350 patients) sensitive and specific immunoassays in the detection (including early) of breast-, lung-, and pancreas adeno carcinoma (CA), and other CAs. We use the human T -- anti-T system to measure cell-mediated (CMI) as well as humoral immune responses towards CA-associated T antigen. T antigen does not occur in reactive form in non-CA tissue. However, it is readily prepared by a multistep procedure and slight chemical degradation from healthy, outdated human red blood cells. Delayed-type skin hypersensitivity to erythrocyte-derived T antigen as well as humoral anti-T response to T, measured by a novel quantitative immunofluorescent assay using insolubilized T antigen (SPIA-T), had greater greater than 80 percent sensitivity and greater than 90 percent specificity in detection of adeno- and small cell CA; toward squamous cell CA only SPIA-T, which is readily performed quantitatively and repeatedly, had such sensitivity. We want to distinguish early CA from nonmalignant and borderline lesions, and monitor the effect of therapy on CA. We intend to establish a rapid, economic assay for diagnosis of and possibly screening for CA. We will focus on early detection and on monitoring for recurrences. We are developing 2 in vitro tests to measure CMI to T, to circumvent the inconveniences of the delayed-type hypersensitivity skin test. We will extend successful attempts by others and by us to relate density of T receptors on CA cells with aggressiveness, and also that of Tn receptors. Satisfactory (early) diagnosis of CA requires precise localization of minute CA in addition to detection. We plan to establish firmly our preliminary work with human [131I]- anti-T IgG to localize T-active TA3 mouse mammary adenoCA metastases by external scanning in a step towards pinpointing early human CA and metastases. Implications of our work may be far-reaching, as we and others have indications that we measure a dynamic interaction of the cancer patient's immune system with the T-specific structures of the tumor.

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National Cancer Institute (NCI)
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Experimental Immunology Study Section (EI)
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Evanston Hospital
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Desai, P R (2000) Immunoreactive T and Tn antigens in malignancy: role in carcinoma diagnosis, prognosis, and immunotherapy. Transfus Med Rev 14:312-25
Springer, G F (1997) Immunoreactive T and Tn epitopes in cancer diagnosis, prognosis, and immunotherapy. J Mol Med 75:594-602
Springer, G F; Desai, P R; Ghazizadeh, M et al. (1995) T/Tn pancarcinoma autoantigens: fundamental, diagnostic, and prognostic aspects. Cancer Detect Prev 19:173-82
Springer, G F (1995) T and Tn pancarcinoma markers: autoantigenic adhesion molecules in pathogenesis, prebiopsy carcinoma-detection, and long-term breast carcinoma immunotherapy. Crit Rev Oncog 6:57-85
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Springer, G F; Desai, P R; Tegtmeyer, H et al. (1994) T/Tn antigen vaccine is effective and safe in preventing recurrence of advanced human breast carcinoma. Cancer Biother 9:7-15
Springer, G F; Desai, P R; Wise, W et al. (1990) Pancarcinoma T and Tn epitopes: autoimmunogens and diagnostic markers that reveal incipient carcinomas and help establish prognosis. Immunol Ser 53:587-612
Springer, G F; Desai, P R; Robinson, M K et al. (1986) The fundamental and diagnostic role of T and Tn antigens in breast carcinoma at the earliest histologic stage and throughout. Prog Clin Biol Res 204:47-70
Springer, G F; Taylor, C R; Howard, D R et al. (1985) Tn, a carcinoma-associated antigen, reacts with anti-Tn of normal human sera. Cancer 55:561-9
Springer, G F; Fry, W A; Desai, P R et al. (1985) Further studies on the detection of early lung and breast carcinoma by T antigen. Cancer Detect Prev 8:95-100