Perinatal transmission of HIV infection presents a high risk situation for both the mother and the baby, and often has tragic consequences. Yet, to date, there have been no studies of the extent to which women at increased risk of HIV infection are aware of the relationship between AIDS and pregnancy, nor have there been any systematic studies of the impact of knowing one is at increased risk of HIV infection on immediate and future fertility-related behaviors. The objective of this study is to begin to fill this gap in our understanding by investigating: how awareness of, or risk for, HIV infection affect fertility-related behavior among pregnant and postpartum women who demographically are at increased risk of HIV infection (urban, economically disadvantaged Black women); and the impact of being informed while pregnant that one is at increased risk of HIV infection on fertility-related behavior among these women. A prospective study will be undertaken with a panel of pregnant women receiving care at the Johns Hopkins Hospital obstetrical clinic. Two-hundred thirty-five women who are identified as higher risk for HIV infection based on screening questionnaires will be interviewed prenatally. Of these, 113 will be women who refuse blood testing, 101 who test seronegative, and 21 who test seropostive. In addition, 231 lower risk women will also be interviewed prenatally. All women will be interviewed at 12 months postpartum. The framework for the interviews draws on psychosocial work in risk perceptions and decision-making under conditions of uncertainty. Results of the study will describe: what disadvantaged minority women who are pregnant understand about AIDS, HIV infection, HIV testing and their relationships to pregnancy and sexual behavior; the fertility-related behaviors of these women, with a particular focus on contraceptive practices, plans for pregnancy, and plans for family size; and the extent to which perceptions of AIDS and knowledge of one's risk status results in changes in these fertility-related behaviors.

National Institute of Health (NIH)
Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development (NICHD)
Research Project (R01)
Project #
Application #
Study Section
Special Emphasis Panel (SRC (TA))
Project Start
Project End
Budget Start
Budget End
Support Year
Fiscal Year
Total Cost
Indirect Cost
Johns Hopkins University
Schools of Public Health
United States
Zip Code
Shumway, J; O'Campo, P; Gielen, A et al. (1999) Preterm labor, placental abruption, and premature rupture of membranes in relation to maternal violence or verbal abuse. J Matern Fetal Med 8:76-80
Gielen, A C; Faden, R R; Kass, N E et al. (1997) Evaluation of an HIV/AIDS education program in an urban prenatal clinic. Womens Health Issues 7:269-78
O'Campo, P; de Boer, M; Faden, R et al. (1997) Confirmation of self-report of HIV testing among a cohort of pregnant women. J Clin Epidemiol 50:57-61
O'Campo, P; Gielen, A C; Faden, R R et al. (1995) Violence by male partners against women during the childbearing year: a contextual analysis. Am J Public Health 85:1092-7
Gielen, A C; O'Campo, P J; Faden, R R et al. (1994) Interpersonal conflict and physical violence during the childbearing year. Soc Sci Med 39:781-7
Gielen, A C; Faden, R R; O'Campo, P et al. (1994) Women's protective sexual behaviors: a test of the health belief model. AIDS Educ Prev 6:1-11
O'Campo, P; Gielen, A C; Faden, R R et al. (1994) Verbal abuse and physical violence among a cohort of low-income pregnant women. Womens Health Issues 4:29-37
Faden, R R; Gielen, A C; Kass, N et al. (1993) Reproductive preferences of pregnant women under shifting probabilities of vertical HIV transmission. Womens Health Issues 3:216-22
O'Campo, P; Deboer, M; Faden, R R et al. (1992) Prior episode of sexually transmitted disease and subsequent sexual risk-reduction practices. A need for improved risk-reduction interventions. Sex Transm Dis 19:326-30
Kass, N E; Faden, R R; Gielen, A et al. (1992) Pregnant women's knowledge of the human immunodeficiency virus: implications for education and counseling. Womens Health Issues 2:17-25

Showing the most recent 10 out of 11 publications