The number of cases of AIDS and the prevalence of HIV diseases will increases dramatically in the near future. Because research has now established that HIV infection is most commonly transmitted through high-risk sexual activities, promoting sexual behavior change represents the most promising approach presently available for AIDS prevention. There is an urgent need for research on methods to assist individuals to alter established high- risk behavior patterns that could result in their exposure to HIV infection or their transmission of HIV infection to others. This application is evaluating the impact of a behavioral group intervention on the risk activities of apparently-healthy but AIDS at-risk homosexual males. A sample of 102 subjects meeting risk behavior criteria was recruited for study participation, assessed a variety of risk measures, and randomly divided into experimental and waiting-list control groups. The experimental subjects are participating in a group program which includes risk education, behavioral self-management training to alter high-risk conduct, sexual assertion training, and training in social skills to maintain reduced-risk patterns. Following intervention, experimental subjects are being compared with control group subjects on the same battery of self-report, self-monitoring, and behavioral measures employed at the preintervention point. The original proposal was funded for a brief pilot period, primarily to determine whether at-risk individuals could be sucessfully recruited and engaged to participate in the study. This objective has been met and the training program itself is being conducted. Continuation funding is required to (1) evaluate the immediate impact of the intervention; (2) follow subjects for an 18-month period in order to determine maintenance of risk behavior change; (3) replicate the training program with subjects formerly assigned to the control group; and (4) prepare and disseminate a training procedures manual to applied AIDS prevention organizations contingent upon successful findings. Results of the project are expected to yield important, new information on behavioral methods to assist risk group members reduce activities that result in HIV exposure or transmission. The study's findings will be relevant to behavioral change/AIDS prevention efforts, especially for persons who have difficulty altering high-risk activity patterns without assistance.

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National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH)
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University of Mississippi Medical Center
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Kelly, J A (1994) Sexually transmitted disease prevention approaches that work. Interventions to reduce risk behavior among individuals, groups, and communities. Sex Transm Dis 21:S73-5
Kelly, J A; Murphy, D A; Washington, C D et al. (1994) The effects of HIV/AIDS intervention groups for high-risk women in urban clinics. Am J Public Health 84:1918-22
Kelly, J A; Murphy, D A; Sikkema, K J et al. (1993) Psychological interventions to prevent HIV infection are urgently needed. New priorities for behavioral research in the second decade of AIDS. Am Psychol 48:1023-34
Kalichman, S C; Kelly, J A; Hunter, T L et al. (1993) Culturally tailored HIV-AIDS risk-reduction messages targeted to African-American urban women: impact on risk sensitization and risk reduction. J Consult Clin Psychol 61:291-5
Kelly, J A; Murphy, D A (1992) Psychological interventions with AIDS and HIV: prevention and treatment. J Consult Clin Psychol 60:576-85
Kelly, J A; Murphy, D A; Bahr, G R et al. (1992) AIDS/HIV risk behavior among the chronic mentally ill. Am J Psychiatry 149:886-9
Kelly, J A; Murphy, D A (1991) Some lessons learned about risk reduction after ten years of the HIV/AIDS epidemic. AIDS Care 3:251-7
Kelly, J A; St Lawrence, J S; Brasfield, T L (1991) Predictors of vulnerability to AIDS risk behavior relapse. J Consult Clin Psychol 59:163-6
Kelly, J A; St Lawrence, J S (1990) The impact of community-based groups to help persons reduce HIV infection risk behaviours. AIDS Care 2:25-36
Kelly, J A; St Lawrence, J S; Brasfield, T L et al. (1990) Psychological factors that predict AIDS high-risk versus AIDS precautionary behavior. J Consult Clin Psychol 58:117-20

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