This application tests a theory-based HIV treatment adherence intervention delivered by cell phone to patients in urban and rural areas. Adherence to antiretroviral (ART) medications is necessary to achieve HIV suppression and non-adherence can lead to treatment resistant genetic variants of HIV. People living with HIV/AIDS often experience difficulty sustaining high-levels of treatment adherence. Most factors that interfere with adherence are unanticipated and occur between clinical visits, including depression, side effects, substance use, and lapses in pharmacy refill. We will conduct a randomized clinical trial to test a cell phone-delivered theory-based medication adherence counseling intervention. The intervention is grounded in Self-Regulation Model and utilizes unannounced pill counts to monitor adherence and guide corrective feedback within the counseling context. Using pill count adherence information for counseling allows providers to detect and correct patient non-adherence within a time frame that can head off viral resistance. An experimental factorial design will test the effects of counseling and a text message reminder system as well the interaction of counseling and text message components with 600 men and women receiving HIV treatment. Following screening, informed consent and baseline assessments participants will be randomized to one of four intervention conditions:(a) self-regulation counseling + regimen tailored text message reminders;(b) self-regulation counseling + control messages;(c) control counseling + regimen tailored text reminders;or (d) control counseling + control messages. The study will therefore use a 2 (self-regulation counseling) x 2 (text message reminders) full factorial deign with participants followed for 12 months post-intervention. The primary endpoints are medication adherence assessed by unannounced pill counts and HIV RNA (viral load). This newly developed intervention strategy is grounded in Self-Regulation Theory and is designed for use in clinical settings with limited resources.

Public Health Relevance

Persistent adherence to antiretroviral therapy is necessary for the successful treatment of HIV infection. The proposed research will test a theory-based behavioral intervention that includes objectively monitoring HIV treatment adherence with corrective feedback delivered by cell phone. The study will also test the independent effects of an automated text message reminder system for sustaining adherence improvements. The intervention under study has utility for people living with HIV/AIDS In resource limited rural and urban settings.

National Institute of Health (NIH)
National Institute of Nursing Research (NINR)
Research Project (R01)
Project #
Application #
Study Section
Special Emphasis Panel (ZRG1)
Program Officer
Hardy, Lynda R
Project Start
Project End
Budget Start
Budget End
Support Year
Fiscal Year
Total Cost
Indirect Cost
University of Connecticut
Schools of Arts and Sciences
United States
Zip Code
Kalichman, Seth C; Eaton, Lisa; Kalichman, Moira O et al. (2016) Race-based medical mistrust, medication beliefs and HIV treatment adherence: test of a mediation model in people living with HIV/AIDS. J Behav Med 39:1056-1064
Kalichman, Seth C; Cherry, Chauncey; Kalichman, Moira O et al. (2016) Sexual Behaviors and Transmission Risks Among People Living with HIV: Beliefs, Perceptions, and Challenges to Using Treatments as Prevention. Arch Sex Behav 45:1421-30
Kalichman, Seth C; Kalichman, Moira O; Cherry, Chauncey et al. (2016) Randomized Factorial Trial of Phone-Delivered Support Counseling and Daily Text Message Reminders for HIV Treatment Adherence. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 73:47-54
Kalichman, Seth C; Kalichman, Moira O; Cherry, Charsey et al. (2015) Intentional Medication Nonadherence Because of Interactive Toxicity Beliefs Among HIV-Positive Active Drug Users. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 70:503-9
Kalichman, Seth C; Cherry, Chauncey; Kalichman, Moira O et al. (2015) HIV sexual transmission risks in the context of clinical care: a prospective study of behavioural correlates of HIV suppression in a community sample, Atlanta, GA, USA. J Int AIDS Soc 18:19930
Kalichman, Seth C; Washington, Christopher; Kegler, Christopher et al. (2015) Continued Substance Use Among People Living With HIV-Hepatitis-C Co-Infection and Receiving Antiretroviral Therapy. Subst Use Misuse 50:1536-43
Kalichman, Seth C; Hernandez, Dominica; Cherry, Chauncey et al. (2014) Food insecurity and other poverty indicators among people living with HIV/AIDS: effects on treatment and health outcomes. J Community Health 39:1133-9
Kalichman, Seth C (2014) The causes and consequences of HIV-related enacted and internalized stigma: a comment on Takada et al. Ann Behav Med 48:5-6
Pellowski, Jennifer A; Kalichman, Seth C; Matthews, Karen A et al. (2013) A pandemic of the poor: social disadvantage and the U.S. HIV epidemic. Am Psychol 68:197-209
Pellowski, Jennifer A; Kalichman, Seth C (2012) Recent advances (2011-2012) in technology-delivered interventions for people living with HIV. Curr HIV/AIDS Rep 9:326-34

Showing the most recent 10 out of 11 publications