Currently available immunomodulatory therapies do not modulate the pathogenesis of axonal degeneration once it is established and are only partially effective in preventing the onset of permanent disability in MS patients. Identifying a drug that stimulates endogenous myelination and spares axon degeneration would theoretically reduce the rate of disease progression. We have previously shown that treatment of demyelinating mouse models with estrogen receptor (ER) ligand; diarylpropionitrile (DPN) has the potential for fulfilling this role. Because DPN is a generic ER ligand with low specificity wescreened higher specificity ERb and found that Indazole-Cl was the best ER ligand. The objective is to achieve in vivo proof of principle in multiple sclerosis (MS) animal models to establish feasibility of the development candidate Indazole-Cl for MS treatment. Using the optimal dosing regimen, a direct effect of Indazole-Cl on stimulation of endogenous oligodendrocyte (OL) progenitor cell (OPC) survival and differentiation, axon remyelination, and neuroprotection is expected. Mechanisms of action will be investigated via second messenger signaling and target cell type. Translationally-relevant imaging will be used to visualize effects n a chronic MS mouse model. Moreover, assessment of Indazole-Cl-induced changes in serum cytokine and growth factors will be assessed to confirm potential biomarkers and clinical application. Eventually, safety studies to support pre-clinical candidate nomination and dossier completion will be performed. The proposed research is inspired by Indazole-Cl's strong dossier and encouraging preliminary results demonstrating its therapeutic efficacy in a chronic MS mouse model. Specifically, stimulation of endogenous remyelination and improved axon function and neurological outcomes were observed and appear mediated by increased resident OPC survival and differentiation. Quiescent OPCs exist in MS lesions and are not effectively activated by largely immunomodulatory current MS drugs.
We aim to target endogenous OPCs using Indazole-Cl, thereby developing MS treatment that slows disease progression with intermittent, short-term dosing regimens.

Public Health Relevance

The proposed research is relevant to public health because we are identifying and assessing the mechanism of action of a putative therapeutic agent that stimulates proliferation of cells that make the myelin and stimulates endogenous remyelination resulting in sparing of axons and clinical protection during demyelinating diseases. The proposed research is relevant to the part of NIH's mission that pertains to the conceptualization, discovery, and preclinical evaluation of innovative therapeutics for nervous system disorders, with the goal of accelerating the development of new treatments for these diseases that will help to reduce the burdens of Human disability.

National Institute of Health (NIH)
National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS)
Research Project (R01)
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Special Emphasis Panel (DDNSR)
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Utz, Ursula
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University of California Riverside
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Karim, Hawra; Kim, Sung Hoon; Lapato, Andrew S et al. (2018) Increase in chemokine CXCL1 by ER? ligand treatment is a key mediator in promoting axon myelination. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 115:6291-6296
Lapato, Andrew S; Tiwari-Woodruff, Seema K (2018) Connexins and pannexins: At the junction of neuro-glial homeostasis & disease. J Neurosci Res 96:31-44
Hasselmann, Jonathan P C; Karim, Hawra; Khalaj, Anna J et al. (2017) Consistent induction of chronic experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in C57BL/6 mice for the longitudinal study of pathology and repair. J Neurosci Methods 284:71-84
Lapato, Andrew S; Szu, Jenny I; Hasselmann, Jonathan P C et al. (2017) Chronic demyelination-induced seizures. Neuroscience 346:409-422
Khalaj, Anna J; Hasselmann, Jonathan; Augello, Catherine et al. (2016) Nudging oligodendrocyte intrinsic signaling to remyelinate and repair: Estrogen receptor ligand effects. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 160:43-52
Moore, Spencer M; Khalaj, Anna J; Kumar, Shalini et al. (2014) Multiple functional therapeutic effects of the estrogen receptor ? agonist indazole-Cl in a mouse model of multiple sclerosis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 111:18061-6
Moore, Spencer; Khalaj, Anna J; Patel, Rhusheet et al. (2014) Restoration of axon conduction and motor deficits by therapeutic treatment with glatiramer acetate. J Neurosci Res 92:1621-36