Ischemic stroke patients with Diabetes mellitus (DM) exhibit a distinct risk-factor and etiologic profile and a worse neurovascular prognosis than non-DM patients. Therefore, there is a compelling need to investigate neurovascular changes after stroke in the DM and non-DM population and to develop therapeutic approaches specifically designed to reduce neurological deficits after stroke. Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) constitutes 90% of diabetic patients and is associated with low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), impairment of the anti-oxidative capacity of HDL-C, low phosphorylation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (p-eNOS), and with reduced ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) gene expression. D-4F is an economical apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA-I) mimetic peptide, presently employed in clinical trials to reduce coronary atherosclerosis in patients with acute coronary syndrome. However, the therapeutic effects of D-4F in post-ischemic stroke have not been investigated. Our preliminary data show that D-4F treatment of stroke starting 2h or 24h after ischemic stroke improves recovery of neurological function in both T2DM and non-DM mice and also increases p-eNOS and ABCA1 in the ischemic brain. In a novel and clinically relevant approach, based on our robust preliminary data, we propose to use D-4F in the treatment of stroke in the non-DM and T2DM population in mice. We seek to develop D-4F as a novel neurorestorative therapy to reduce white matter (WM) dysfunction and vascular damage, in T2DM and non-DM mice when treatment is initiated at 24h after onset of ischemic stroke. In addition, most development of stroke treatments has focused on young adult animals, but not on old animals, the prevalent population with stroke. Increased age also increases neurological impairment after stroke. We have also developed and implemented multimodality MRI imaging which can dynamically monitor neurovascular remodeling in both the animal and the patient. In the current study, we will measure WM and vascular changes and elucidate the mechanisms of action of D-4F in young adult and aged animals with and without T2DM after stroke. Our hypothesis is that D-4F increases ABCA1 and p-eNOS signaling activity which mediates vascular and WM remodeling and in concert improve functional outcome after stroke. We, therefore, propose two highly integrated and longitudinally designed Specific Aims.
Aim 1 will investigate the delayed (24h after stroke) therapeutic effects of D-4F in non-DM and T2DM in young adult and aged mice after stroke. The differences in cerebral WM and vascular changes, and neurological functional outcome after stroke between non-DM and T2DM mice treated with or without D-4F will be analyzed. MRI will be employed to measure the dynamics of neurovascular reorganization underlying therapeutic response and recovery.
In Aim 2, using eNOS knockout mice and specific loss of brain ABCA1 mice, we will investigate the mechanisms by which D-4F promotes neurovascular remodeling and hence, neurological recovery. The long-term objective of this RO1 is to develop a neurorestorative treatment for stroke in patients with or without diabetes.
This application pioneers the investigation of means and mechanisms to promote neurological recovery after stroke in diabetic animals. We will employ D-4F, an apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA-I) mimetic peptide, as a novel neurorestorative treatment for stroke. Advanced MRI and other methods will be used to elucidate the mechanisms underlying functional recovery after treatment of stroke in diabetic animals with D-4F.
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