This grant is directed at understanding the molecular mechanisms that control the development and connectivity of motor neurons. Since these cells are needed to control movement and respiration, diseases of motor neurons (e.g. ALS and SMA) are extremely costly and frequently lethal due to the lack of any treatment. The two main goals of this application are to characterize the function and biochemistry of motor neuron transcription factors and to identify the genetic pathways involved in their proper development. Our past studies have shown that LIM-HD factors function in a combinatorial manner to specify individual motor neuron subtypes (LIM code). In this grant we will examine how LIM-HD factors acquire cell type specific activities through functional and genetic interactions with other transcription factors. We will test whether LIM-HD factors have temporally regulated functions that direct the sequential refinement of motor neuron identity and function. Finally, we will use """"""""forward"""""""" mouse genetic screens to identify and characterize new genes involved in motor neuron development. The experiments in this grant rely extensively on mouse genetics using transgenic and knockout methods, biochemistry and transcription assays, explant assays and imaging, and ENU-based mutagenesis screens.
In aim one we will examine the function of LIM-HD factors Isl1 and Isl2, LMO factor LMO4, and Tbx factor Tbx20 using mouse knockout mutations to define functional interactions between LIM-HD factors and other classes of transcription factors expressed by motor neurons.
In aim two we will use biochemical assays to investigate how gene regulation is controlled during motor neuron differentiation.
In aim three we will examine whether motor neuron transcription factors Isl1, LMO4, Hb9, and Tbx20 are required for the survival and proper function of post natal motor neurons, since this could shed new light on motor neuron disease pathways.
In aim four we will characterize new genetic pathways involved in motor neuron development by characterizing genes identified through an END mutagenesis screen. Our studies should provide novel information about the molecular pathways that operate to control motor neuron specification, axon navigation, circuit formation, and survival in adults.

National Institute of Health (NIH)
National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS)
Method to Extend Research in Time (MERIT) Award (R37)
Project #
Application #
Study Section
Neurodifferentiation, Plasticity, and Regeneration Study Section (NDPR)
Program Officer
Gubitz, Amelie
Project Start
Project End
Budget Start
Budget End
Support Year
Fiscal Year
Total Cost
Indirect Cost
Salk Institute for Biological Studies
La Jolla
United States
Zip Code
Hinckley, Christopher A; Alaynick, William A; Gallarda, Benjamin W et al. (2015) Spinal Locomotor Circuits Develop Using Hierarchical Rules Based on Motorneuron Position and Identity. Neuron 87:1008-21
Levine, Ariel J; Hinckley, Christopher A; Hilde, Kathryn L et al. (2014) Identification of a cellular node for motor control pathways. Nat Neurosci 17:586-93
Hsu, Cheng-Chih; White, Nicholas M; Hayashi, Marito et al. (2013) Microscopy ambient ionization top-down mass spectrometry reveals developmental patterning. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 110:14855-60
Hinckley, Christopher A; Pfaff, Samuel L (2013) Imaging spinal neuron ensembles active during locomotion with genetically encoded calcium indicators. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1279:71-9
Rowe, Helen M; Kapopoulou, Adamandia; Corsinotti, Andrea et al. (2013) TRIM28 repression of retrotransposon-based enhancers is necessary to preserve transcriptional dynamics in embryonic stem cells. Genome Res 23:452-61
Levine, Ariel J; Lewallen, Kathryn A; Pfaff, Samuel L (2012) Spatial organization of cortical and spinal neurons controlling motor behavior. Curr Opin Neurobiol 22:812-21
Macfarlan, Todd S; Gifford, Wesley D; Driscoll, Shawn et al. (2012) Embryonic stem cell potency fluctuates with endogenous retrovirus activity. Nature 487:57-63
Kawakami, Yasuhiko; Marti, Merce; Kawakami, Hiroko et al. (2011) Islet1-mediated activation of the *-catenin pathway is necessary for hindlimb initiation in mice. Development 138:4465-73
Bai, Ge; Pfaff, Samuel L (2011) Protease regulation: the Yin and Yang of neural development and disease. Neuron 72:9-21
Alaynick, William A; Jessell, Thomas M; Pfaff, Samuel L (2011) SnapShot: spinal cord development. Cell 146:178-178.e1

Showing the most recent 10 out of 15 publications