Tuberculosis (TB) is still a major public health challenge in Brazil. Though Brazil has moved down the list of WHO'S 22 high burden countries, it still remains 18th. This burden makes Brazil particularly suitable for TB/HIV research as one of the few low- and middle-income countries with free and universal access to both anti-TB and HAART drugs provided by the public health system. The ICOHRTA AIDS/TB in Brazil succeeded in training a cadre of investigators working in the public health system and academic institutions. This renewal application in response to PAR-08-155 intends to continue this mission of training highly motivated investigators with capacity to sustain research with impact in TB and AIDS control. This Phase II ICOHRTA AIDS/TB grant is integrated with other awards received by the Academic Program of TB, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (FURJ) and the Center for TB Research, Johns Hopkins University including ICIDR (NIAID), CREATE (Melinda and Bill Gates Foundation), TREAT-TB (USAID), as well as other important Brazilian awards, such as the National Institute of Science and Technology in TB, awarded by the CNPq. Since September 2005, 1,332 Brazilian trainees have participated in ICOHRTA activities;45 have received or will receive M.Sc. or PhD degrees, or post-doctoral training by Brazilian Universities;and over 80 publications have appeared in peer-reviewed journals. Former trainees are now faculty members in this renewal application and others work in leadership positions in the public health system. ICOHRTA faculty members are also involved in the fight to control TB in Brazil, working closely with the Brazilian TB Control Program, the Brazilian Society of Thoracic Diseases and TB, the TB Research Network (REDE-TB), and with organizations of the civil societies at the Stop TB Partnership and the Country Coordination Mechanism of the Global Fund. This renewal proposal intends to expand training activities to other high burden areas, such as Fortaleza and Salvador in the North-East region, and Porto Alegre in the South region. Other centers in the original areas of Rio de Janeiro, Sao Paulo, and Vitoria will also participate. The main goal of the renewal application is to continue its contribution to TB control in Brazil

Public Health Relevance

The original Phase II ICOHRTA AIDS/TB in Brazil has trained 1,332 trainees since 2005, and these trainees have used this training to conduct important TB/HIV research and to become leaders in the fight to control TB in Brazil. This renewal application intends to continue the mission of training highly motivated investigators with capacity to sustain research with impact in TB and AIDS control and ultimately contribute to the control of both diseases in Brazil.

National Institute of Health (NIH)
Fogarty International Center (FIC)
International Research Training Cooperative Agreements (U2R)
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Special Emphasis Panel (ZRG1-ICP2-B (52))
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Mcdermott, Jeanne
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Federal University of Rio de Janeiro
Rio de Janeiro
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Cailleaux-Cezar, Michelle; Loredo, Carla; Silva, José Roberto Lapa E et al. (2018) Impact of smoking on sputum culture conversion and pulmonary tuberculosis treatment outcomes in Brazil: a retrospective cohort study. J Bras Pneumol 44:99-105
Ribeiro, Fabíola Karla Correa; Pan, William; Bertolde, Adelmo et al. (2015) Genotypic and Spatial Analysis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Transmission in a High-Incidence Urban Setting. Clin Infect Dis 61:758-66
Maciel, Ethel Leonor; Reis-Santos, Bárbara (2015) Determinants of tuberculosis in Brazil: from conceptual framework to practical application. Rev Panam Salud Publica 38:28-34
Nunes, Luciana de S; Baethgen, Ludmila F; Ribeiro, Marta O et al. (2014) Outbreaks due to Mycobacterium abscessus subsp. bolletii in southern Brazil: persistence of a single clone from 2007 to 2011. J Med Microbiol 63:1288-93
do Prado, Thiago Nascimento; Miranda, Angélica Espinosa; de Souza, Fernanda Mattos et al. (2014) Factors associated with tuberculosis by HIV status in the Brazilian national surveillance system: a cross sectional study. BMC Infect Dis 14:415
Ferreira Junior, Sergio Luiz Montego; Dalla Costa, Elis Regina; Santos, Paula Gonçalves dos et al. (2014) In house reverse membrane hybridisation assay versus GenoType MTBDRplus and their performance to detect mutations in the genes rpoB, katG and inhA. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 109:307-14
Ribeiro Macedo, L; Reis-Santos, B; Riley, L W et al. (2013) Treatment outcomes of tuberculosis patients in Brazilian prisons: a polytomous regression analysis. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 17:1427-34
Trajman, A; Steffen, R E; Menzies, D (2013) Interferon-Gamma Release Assays versus Tuberculin Skin Testing for the Diagnosis of Latent Tuberculosis Infection: An Overview of the Evidence. Pulm Med 2013:601737
Soares, E C C; Vollmer, W M; Cavalcante, S C et al. (2013) Tuberculosis control in a socially vulnerable area: a community intervention beyond DOT in a Brazilian favela. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 17:1581-6
Bastos, M L; Menzies, D; Belo, M T C T et al. (2013) Changes in QuantiFERON®-TB Gold In-Tube results during treatment for tuberculous infection. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 17:909-16

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