We investigated the incidence and prevalence of retinopathy in a sample of 981 middle-aged ARIC study participants who were selected to participate in the third and fourth ARIC study examinations and who had retinal photographs of the same eye taken at both study visits. The prevalence of retinopathy was 7.7%, with 3.8% of people developing signs of retinopathy in the three year interval between exams. Although the rate of retinopathy was found to be higher among diabetics (40 of 147), a comparable number of cases occurred in non-diabetic individuals (36 of 834). Factors found to increase risk of retinopathy include higher levels of blood pressure, fasting serum glucose, total cholesterol, and plasma fibrinogen. For more information about the study, including the full list of investigators and participating institutions and resulting publications, see www.cscc.unc.edu/carmri/ Data analysis of phenotype and genotype data is on-going. Findings from this study are being merged with those from other aging and cardiovascular cohorts to allow for increased power to detect genetic signals of disease.

National Institute of Health (NIH)
National Eye Institute (NEI)
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Xie, Jing; Ikram, M Kamran; Cotch, Mary Frances et al. (2017) Association of Diabetic Macular Edema and Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy With Cardiovascular Disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. JAMA Ophthalmol 135:586-593
Jensen, Richard A; Sim, Xueling; Smith, Albert Vernon et al. (2016) Novel Genetic Loci Associated With Retinal Microvascular Diameter. Circ Cardiovasc Genet 9:45-54
Tandon, Arti; Chen, Ching J; Penman, Alan et al. (2015) African Ancestry Analysis and Admixture Genetic Mapping for Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy in African Americans. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 56:3999-4005
Sabanayagam, Charumathi; Lye, Weng Kit; Klein, Ronald et al. (2015) Retinal microvascular calibre and risk of diabetes mellitus: a systematic review and participant-level meta-analysis. Diabetologia 58:2476-85
Ding, Jie; Wai, Khin Lay; McGeechan, Kevin et al. (2014) Retinal vascular caliber and the development of hypertension: a meta-analysis of individual participant data. J Hypertens 32:207-15
Holliday, Elizabeth G; Smith, Albert V; Cornes, Belinda K et al. (2013) Insights into the genetic architecture of early stage age-related macular degeneration: a genome-wide association study meta-analysis. PLoS One 8:e53830
Jensen, Richard A; Sim, Xueling; Li, Xiaohui et al. (2013) Genome-wide association study of retinopathy in individuals without diabetes. PLoS One 8:e54232
Sim, Xueling; Jensen, Richard A; Ikram, M Kamran et al. (2013) Genetic loci for retinal arteriolar microcirculation. PLoS One 8:e65804
Avery, Christy L; Kucharska-Newton, Anna; Monda, Keri L et al. (2012) Impact of long-term measures of glucose and blood pressure on the retinal microvasculature. Atherosclerosis 225:412-7
Sobrin, Lucia; Green, Todd; Sim, Xueling et al. (2011) Candidate gene association study for diabetic retinopathy in persons with type 2 diabetes: the Candidate gene Association Resource (CARe). Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 52:7593-602

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