The birth of an infant can be a stressful event. Little study of the effects of stress on lactation hormones or milk availability outcome has been done with lactating mothers of preterm & term infants. Using a repeated measures comparative design, the overall purpose of this study is to: 1) determine the relationships between stress and early breastmilk availability as facilitate by the major lactation hormones non-nursing & term nursing infants. Therefore, in lactation mothers, the specific primary aims are to: (1) Determine whether the variables of a) stress manifestations (psychological distress, disturbed sleep, fatigue & physiological stress arousal), b) lactation hormone levels (prolactin & oxytocin) in response to breast pumping & nursing, c) infant care elements (Kangaroo care & frequency of lactation via pumping or nursing), & d) group (mothers of preterm & term infants) predict milk availability, (2) Determine whether the same variables as Aim 1 (a, b, c, d) employment status, perceived sufficiency of maternal milk supply, & whether or not the infant is still hospitalized will be explored as predictive variables. The secondary aims are to: (3) Determine whether there is a differences in the variables specified in aim 1 (stress manifestations; between and among salivary cortisol, plasma cortisol, plasma epinephrine, plasma norepinephrine, prolactin, oxytocin and measures of psychological distress, disturbed sleep, & fatigue. The convenience samples will consist of 190 mothers, 95 mothers of preterm infants & 95 mothers of term infants. Psychologic distress will be measured via the Perceived Stress & Fatigue Scales & sleep items the first 28 days postpartum, and the Multiple Affect Adjective days 7,14, 21, & 28 and plasma cortisol, epinephrine, and norepinephrine days 14 & 28. Physiologic stress arousal will be measured via salivary cortisol measured on days 14 and 28 postpartum. Telephone follow-up will occur on days 42 and 70 to inquire about employment, infant hospitalization and perceived maternal milk sufficiency. Evidence that any of the proposed elements were predictors of milk availability would lead to the testing of interventions.
|Hill, Pamela D; Aldag, Jean C (2007) Predictors of term infant feeding at week 12 postpartum. J Perinat Neonatal Nurs 21:250-5|
|Hill, Pamela D; Aldag, Jean C; Zinaman, Michael et al. (2007) Predictors of preterm infant feeding methods and perceived insufficient milk supply at week 12 postpartum. J Hum Lact 23:32-8;quiz 39-43|