Certain characteristics of police work such as shift work, long work hours, high demands, and traumatic exposures have been associated with increased levels of psychological stress and in some cases with adverse cardiovascular outcomes. An observational study conducted over a period of time can provide more convincing evidence that these workplace stressors lead to development of adverse physiological and psychological health outcomes. Additionally, health outcomes of longer latency periods can be assessed. Thus, the general objective of this project is to conduct a longitudinal follow-up assessment of police officers for whom baseline data and a protocol infrastructure have already been established. The study will assess police workplace stress by examining physiological and psychological measures of stress and evaluating potential associations of these measures with subclinical markers or early signs of cardiovascular and metabolic disease in a population-based design. Markers of disease include blood pressure; laboratory measurement of lipids, glucose, and insulin; heart rate variability to assess autonomic nervous system function; ultrasound imaging studies to measure carotid artery wall thickness (atherosclerosis) and brachial artery reactivity (endothelial or vascular function); and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometric (DXA) measurement of body fat, lean tissue composition, and bone density. Also to be examined are psychosocial factors known to be detrimental to health such as perceived stress, depression, and hostility, and factors known to be protective (e.g., resiliency and social support). The research findings on the health consequences of stress can provide translational information to facilitate improved prevention practices. Analysis of the complex prospective data acquired from this research may contribute to a better understanding of how exposure to stressors over time may lead to early indicators of cardiovascular and metabolic abnormalities. According to the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, the percentage of workers who describe their job as very or extremely stressful can be as high as 40 percent (Stress...At Work; NIOSH Publication No. 99- 101). Given this likelihood that stress is relatively common in the workplace, prevention of adverse health consequences that may be associated with stress could benefit a large proportion of the working population.
Stressors inherent in police work and related lifestyle factors have been associated with adverse cardiovascular and metabolic health outcomes. However, the majority of studies has thus far been cross sectional in design, and has focused mostly on apparent clinical outcomes. Thus, the overall goal of this project is to longitudinally examine the impact of occupational stressors on early signs of cardiovascular and metabolic disease in police officers in order to further knowledge on this topic and enhance prevention efforts in the field.
|Gu, Ja K; Charles, Luenda E; Klein, Ronald et al. (2018) Association Between Blood Pressure and Retinal Vessel Diameters Among Police Officers in the US Northeast. J Occup Environ Med 60:234-240|
|McCanlies, Erin C; Gu, Ja Kook; Andrew, Michael E et al. (2018) The effect of social support, gratitude, resilience and satisfaction with life on depressive symptoms among police officers following Hurricane Katrina. Int J Soc Psychiatry 64:63-72|
|Leppma, Monica; Mnatsakanova, Anna; Sarkisian, Khachatur et al. (2018) Stressful life events and posttraumatic growth among police officers: A cross-sectional study. Stress Health 34:175-186|
|Andrew, Michael E; Violanti, John M; Gu, Ja K et al. (2017) Police work stressors and cardiac vagal control. Am J Hum Biol 29:|
|Charles, Luenda E; Gu, Ja K; Ma, Claudia C et al. (2017) Shiftwork and the Retinal Vasculature Diameters Among Police Officers. J Occup Environ Med 59:e172-e179|
|McCanlies, Erin C; Gu, Ja Kook; Andrew, Michael E et al. (2017) Resilience mediates the relationship between social support and post-traumatic stress symptoms in police officers. J Emerg Manag 15:107-116|
|McCanlies, Erin C; Sarkisian, Khachatur; Andrew, Michael E et al. (2017) Association of peritraumatic dissociation with symptoms of depression and posttraumatic stress disorder. Psychol Trauma 9:479-484|
|Violanti, John M; Fekedulegn, Desta; Andrew, Michael E et al. (2017) The impact of perceived intensity and frequency of police work occupational stressors on the cortisol awakening response (CAR): Findings from the BCOPS study. Psychoneuroendocrinology 75:124-131|
|Fekedulegn, Desta; Burchfiel, Cecil M; Ma, Claudia C et al. (2017) Fatigue and on-duty injury among police officers: The BCOPS study. J Safety Res 60:43-51|
|Violanti, John M; Fekedulegn, Desta; Hartley, Tara A et al. (2016) Highly Rated and most Frequent Stressors among Police Officers: Gender Differences. Am J Crim Justice 41:645-662|