This resource provides unique primate reagents not available commercially in support of NIH funded investigators using nonhuman primates (NHP) as pre-clinical models for vaccine efficacy and immunotherapies. Hence, the rationale for this application. State of the art investigations of immune responses related to human infectious diseases, autoimmune diseases, organ and cell allogeneic and xenogeneic transplantation models or immunization procedures that use nonhuman primate models increasingly include the use of recombinant cytokines, chemokines, growth factors or immunomodulatory ligands in vivo. While the close evolutionary relationship between human and nonhuman primates results in cross reactivity between most human recombinant factors when used with NHP cells, differences in affinity/bioactivity have been noted. More important however, most if not all nonhuman primate molecules are not identical to human homologues, often leading to the development of neutralizing antibody responses to the xenogeneic molecule in vivo, potentially providing uninterpretable data and markedly restricting the repeated and most optimal in vivo use of select immunomodulators in these models. Clearly, the availability of well characterized and standardized purified recombinant NHP reagents including the ones produced and distributed by the NCRR funded """"""""Resource for Nonhuman Primate Immune Reagents"""""""" has largely alleviated this limitation and allowed numerous investigators to address seminal questions using nonhuman primates during the past 3 years of funding as attested by the support letters of such recipients (Appendix). In addition, a number of candidate vaccines against several agents classified as bioterrorism categories A-C by the NIH/NIAID and CDC are at stages ready to be tested for efficacy in NHP. Investigators planning to test such candidate vaccines have already approached us regarding the feasibility of incorporating one or more reagents as potential adjuvants to broaden or potentiate immune responses. Thus, this application requests continued support for allowing this Resource to continue to provide NHP cytokines/chemokines/soluble co-stimulatory factors, DNA constructs capable of expressing such factors and explore strategies for improving the pharmacokinetics and biological effects of such reagents in vivo. Specifically, the resource will perform the following: 1. Preparation, testing and distribution of NHP cytokines/chemokines. 2. Construction and testing of optimized plasmid based constructs for the expression of NHP cytokines/chemokines and immunomodulatory factors.

National Institute of Health (NIH)
National Center for Research Resources (NCRR)
Resource-Related Research Projects (R24)
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National Center for Research Resources Initial Review Group (RIRG)
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Watson, Harold L
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Emory University
Schools of Medicine
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Ryan, Emily S; Micci, Luca; Fromentin, RĂ©mi et al. (2016) Loss of Function of Intestinal IL-17 and IL-22 Producing Cells Contributes to Inflammation and Viral Persistence in SIV-Infected Rhesus Macaques. PLoS Pathog 12:e1005412
Hong, Jung Joo; Amancha, Praveen K; Rogers, Kenneth A et al. (2014) Early lymphoid responses and germinal center formation correlate with lower viral load set points and better prognosis of simian immunodeficiency virus infection. J Immunol 193:797-806
Hong, Jung Joo; Amancha, Praveen K; Rogers, Kenneth et al. (2012) Spatial alterations between CD4(+) T follicular helper, B, and CD8(+) T cells during simian immunodeficiency virus infection: T/B cell homeostasis, activation, and potential mechanism for viral escape. J Immunol 188:3247-56
Lugli, Enrico; Mueller, Yvonne M; Lewis, Mark G et al. (2011) IL-15 delays suppression and fails to promote immune reconstitution in virally suppressed chronically SIV-infected macaques. Blood 118:2520-9
Pallikkuth, Suresh; Rogers, Kenneth; Villinger, Francois et al. (2011) Interleukin-21 administration to rhesus macaques chronically infected with simian immunodeficiency virus increases cytotoxic effector molecules in T cells and NK cells and enhances B cell function without increasing immune activation or viral replication. Vaccine 29:9229-38
Dubie, Robert A; Maksaereekul, Saipiroon; Shacklett, Barbara L et al. (2009) Co-immunization with IL-15 enhances cellular immune responses induced by a vif-deleted simian immunodeficiency virus proviral DNA vaccine and confers partial protection against vaginal challenge with SIVmac251. Virology 386:109-21
Klatt, Nichole R; Villinger, Francois; Bostik, Pavel et al. (2008) Availability of activated CD4+ T cells dictates the level of viremia in naturally SIV-infected sooty mangabeys. J Clin Invest 118:2039-49
Pereira, L E; Villinger, F; Wulff, H et al. (2007) Pharmacokinetics, toxicity, and functional studies of the selective Kv1.3 channel blocker 5-(4-phenoxybutoxy)psoralen in rhesus macaques. Exp Biol Med (Maywood) 232:1338-54
Ansari, Aftab A; Pereira, Lara E; Mayne, Ann E et al. (2007) The role of disease stage, plasma viral load and regulatory T cells (Tregs) on autoantibody production in SIV-infected non-human primates. J Autoimmun 28:152-9
Onlamoon, Nattawat; Plagman, Nicholas; Rogers, Kenneth A et al. (2007) Anti-CD3/28 mediated expansion of macaque CD4+ T cells is polyclonal and provides extended survival after adoptive transfer. J Med Primatol 36:206-18

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