Exposure assessment Comparison of agreement of experts to rate exposures in the textile and foundry industries were used to show the value of multiple raters, extra information in industry-specific questionnaires, and variation disagreements across exposure distribution. For diesel exhaust exposure, the rule-based algorithms compare favorably with expert-based assessment. Lung Cancer Markers of lung scarring were found to be associated with lung cancer. HPV Concurrent HPV infections of multiple types are not associated with each other, but each infection increases risk of precancerous lesions. Cytology screening in women might lead to a transient enhancement of susceptibility to HPV infection and use of a carrageenan-based gel during the exam might mitigate this enhancement. A single round of HPV testing was shown to have better sensitivity and specificity than a single Pap smear or single Visual Inspection with Acetic Acid, and having multiple HPV infection did not increase the persistence of any HPV infections. In another study a mailed self-collected cervical sampling improved access and adherence to cervical cancer screening in the rural Mississippi river delta study. The HPV vaccine was shown that it can prevent anal HPV infection. HIV The HIV/AIDS Cancer Match Study found that the US AIDS population expanded fourfold from 1991 to 2005 because of an increase in the number of people aged 40 years or older. From 1991-1995 to 2001-2005, the estimated number of AIDS-defining cancers decreased by greater than threefold, whereas non-AIDS-defining cancers increased by approximately threefold. Biomarkers The ability to detect concentrations above the assay's lower limit of detection, coefficients-of-variation, and intraclass correlation coefficients of 116 inflammation, immune, and metabolic markers across two luminex bead-based commercial kits (Bio-Rad, Millipore) and three specimen types were evaluated. A majority of markers were detectable in >25% of individuals on all specimen types/kits. When results were combined across specimen types, 45 Bio-Rad and 71 Millipore markers had acceptable performance. Cancer genetics NHANES III participants at least 40 years of age found that the ALAD G177C single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) was associated with decreased all-cause mortality but there was no interaction effect between ALAD genotype and blood lead level on mortality risk. In another study DNA repair gene polymorphisms and cutaneous malignant melanoma risk analyzed in melanoma-prone families with/without CDKN2A mutations found two genes, POLN and PRKDC, to be significantly associated with melanoma, with similar effects in CDKN2A (+) and CDKN2A (-) families. A model to predict a patient's probability of sustained virological response (SVR) based on IL28B genotype and clinicalvariables was developed from 646 HCV genotype 1-infected European American patients, 14.2% achieved SVR. IL28B rs12979860-CC genotype was the strongest predictor of SVR;the model also included HCV RNA, AST/ALT ratio, Ishak fibrosis score and prior ribavirin treatment. Bladder In pooled analysis of NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study, Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial, and U.S. Radiologic Technologists Studies a reduction in risk of bladder cancer for reported regular use of nonaspirin NSAIDs;the risk reduction was limited to nonsmokers. Liver cancer Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) individuals diagnosed between 1993 and 2005 in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER)-Medicare database were compared to population controls. Metabolic syndrome was significantly associated with increased risk of HCC and ICC in the general U.S. population. Kaposi Sarcoma (KS)In the HIV/AIDS Cancer Match Study (1980-2007), the estimated proportions of AIDS-defining malignancies among persons with AIDS were substantial, particularly for KS and some NHLs;except for cervical cancer, the proportions of AIDS-defining malignancies occurring among persons with AIDS peaked in the mid-1990s and then declined. Blood-Related Cancers In population-based data from Sweden, multiple myeloma (MM) patients had an 11.51-fold increased risk of acute myeloid leukemia (AML)/myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS), monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) patients had an 8.01-fold increased risk of AML/MDS, which was seen only in IgG/IgA but not IgM MGUS, and an excess risk of non-melanoma skin cancer among MM and MGUS patients. BMI and diet Dietary data from the NHANES 1988-1994, 1999-2002, and 2003-2008 was used to examine changes in reported energy intake, amount of foods and beverages, number of eating occasions, and percent of energy from foods and beverages, among non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black, and Mexican American 2-19 y olds. Race/ethnic differences in trajectory of changes in dietary behaviors over past 20 y were modest and were not accompanied by a significant increase in energy intake. Cancer Screening and History In women in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial CA 125 levels were elevated in 65 patients who had CA 125 data available from samples that were collected <12 months before cancer diagnosis;however, levels of the additional 7 biomarkers were not different between cases and controls, two panels that combined CA 125 and 7 biomarkers failed to improve the sensitivity of CA 125 alone. The population-based 2001 Connecticut Family Health Study used family history of cancer reports for first-degree relatives and second-degree relatives on breast, colorectal, prostate, and lung cancer from 1019 participants. Overall, sensitivity and positive predictive value were low to moderate and varied by cancer type. Transplants and cancer Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients that includes data on a large number of solid-organ transplant recipients in the US and information on malignancies diagnosed post-transplantation was used to conduct a retrospective cohort study among kidney transplant recipients to examine differences in risk factors between early-onset post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) and late-onset PTLD., intake of total water over 24 h from different contributors varied by age and qualitative differences in dietary intake in association with the amount of plain water and beverage moisture in the recalls were observed. Cancer Screening and History National Health Interview Survey data (between 1992 and 2005) showed rates of use for cancer tests are rising only for colorectal cancer, due largely to the increase in colorectal endoscopy screening. Use of all the modalities was strongly influenced by contact with a physician and by having health insurance coverage. In the Family Health Study family history prevalence for 4 of the most common adult solid tumors is substantial and the reported prevalence varied by respondent characteristics.

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Meulepas, Johanna M; Hauptmann, Michael; Lubin, Jay H et al. (2018) Is there Unmeasured Indication Bias in Radiation-Related Cancer Risk Estimates from Studies of Computed Tomography? Radiat Res 189:128-135
Flegal, Katherine M; Graubard, Barry I; Yi, Sang-Wook (2017) Comparative effects of the restriction method in two large observational studies of body mass index and mortality among adults. Eur J Clin Invest 47:415-421
Nyante, S J; Graubard, B I; Li, Y et al. (2012) Trends in sex hormone concentrations in US males: 1988-1991 to 1999-2004. Int J Androl 35:456-66