Body weight, Physical Activity and Nutrition. Long term (5-8 yrs.) of supplemental -tocopherol and -carotene had no effect on incident liver cancer and chronic liver disease mortality in Finnish male smokers. A beta-diversity metric of the upper gastrointestinal microbiome among 659 healthy Chinese adults was associated with a fourfold difference in obesity risk in this Asian population. Tobacco: For men who underwent esophageal cancer screening in Henan Province, China the current vs. never and former smoking was found to be associated with both alpha and beta diversity in the upper gastrointestinal tract. Oral Health. In a population-based Chinese cancer screening cohort poor dental health was associated with a less microbial diversity, whereas poor periodontal health was associated with more diversity and the presence of potentially pathogenic species. Endogenous Hormones. Women enrolled in Kaiser Permanente of Colorado with a more diverse gut microbiome exhibit an elevated urinary ratio of hydroxylated estrogen metabolites to parent estrogen. Lung Cancer/ Smoking. Coffee drinking was positively associated with lung cancer in the NIH AARP cohort study although substantially attenuated after adjustment for smoking. A population-based study of lung cancer case patients from the general population of Lombardy, Italy, from 2002 to 2005 showed that clinically useful estimates of absolute risks of lung cancer recurrence and mortality that are applicable to the general population. These data highlight the need for more effective adjuvant treatments overall and within specific subgroup, and the estimated absolute risks of various endpoints are useful for designing clinical trials. Breast Cancer. Postmenopausal women with breast cancer have altered composition and estrogen-independent low diversity of their gut microbiota. Morphometric analysis of terminal duct lobular unit involution among women from the Komen Tissue Bank was associated with the pathogenesis of breast cancer and as a progression marker for women with benign biopsies or as an intermediate endpoint in prevention studies. Liver Cancer and Disease. Coffee consumption is associated with reduced risk of HCC in the Liver Cancer Pooling Project, In Finish smoking men long-term supplemental -tocopherol or -carotene had no effect on liver cancer or CLD mortality over 24 years of follow-up. Unlike percent mammographic density, computer-extracted mammographic texture pattern features are associated with carrying BRCA1/2 mutations. Statin use was associated with reduced risk of liver cancer overall in the United Kingdom's Clinical Practice Research Datalink. Risk was particularly reduced among persons with liver disease and with diabetes indicating that statin use may be especially beneficial in persons at elevated risk of liver cancer. In the Liver Cancer Pooling Project Bilateral oophorectomy increases the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with no association between oral contraceptive use and HCC risk. Multiple cancers Several genetic variants in the 9p21 region from 8 GWASs were associated with the risk of multiple cancers. Having a cancer diagnosis in Medicare-SEER was not associated with an overall risk of incident amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Most differences between blacks and whites in the age at cancer diagnosis are small in SEER. Gynecological procedures. Benign gynecologic surgeries among young women are associated with increased mortality risk, which attenuates with age. Transplantation. No cancer risk for most common induction therapies for kidney transplantation in the Transplant Cancer Match Study. Prostate Cancer. In the Prostate, Lung , Colon and Ovarian Screening Trial men with frontal plus moderate vertex baldness at age 45 years was associated with an increased risk of aggressive prostate cancer. HPV and Cervical Cancer. NHANES data show that higher burden of oral oncogenic HPV infections and HPV-positive oropharyngeal cancers among men than women arises in part from higher number of lifetime sexual partners and stronger associations with sexual behaviors among men. Collection of additional lesion-directed biopsies during colposcopy increased detection of cervical cancer precursors (high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions). The Costa Rica Vaccine trial showed that self-collected specimens can be used for HPV-based screening, providing sensitivity and specificity comparable with clinician-collected specimens and detecting disease earlier than cytology. Analysis of two trials of bivalent HPV vaccine, women aged 15-25 years, one and two doses of the HPV-16/18 vaccine protected against cervical HPV-16/18 infections, similar to the protection provided by the three-dose schedule. We have developed and evaluated a next-generation bisulfite sequencing (NGS) assay that quantify methylation of CpG sites in the HPV genome, and shown that it can distinguish HPV16 cervical precancer from HPV16-positive transient infections. A next-generation bisulfite sequencing assay that quantify methylation of CpG sites in the HPV genome can distinguish HPV16 cervical precancer from HPV16-positive transient infections. HPV and Pap testing for cervical screening: risk of cancer have been stratified by women testing HPV-/Pap-, risks by age, and risks by HPV genotype. Immune Panel. The NCI Multiplex Immune Panel has been applied to individuals with various conditions and behaviors: lung cancer, smoking, BMI, physical activity, aspirin, and coffee intake. Oral Cancer. Risks of progression to oral cancer after leukoplakia diagnosis in SEER-Medicare were estimated. Non-Hodgkin and other lymphoma. Associations between ultraviolet radiation exposure and subtypes of non-Hodgkin lymphoma were found in SEER. Elderly (65 yrs) patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma who received doxorubicin-based (+/-rituximab) therapy had elevated cardiovascular events compared to cancer-free controls Melanoma. Higher coffee intake was associated with a modest decrease in risk of melanoma in the NIH-AARP cohort study. Other. Relationships were found in pubertal timing and BMI in migrant study of British-Bangladeshi Girls. Pack-years smoking was the primary determinant of smoking-related CVD risk; however, accrual influenced RRs. Lower circulating levels of inflammatory markers were found among coffee drinkers, which may partially mediate previously observed associations of coffee with cancer and other chronic diseases. NHANES adults, the eating time for lunch was earlier, and the lunch meal provided more energy on the no-breakfast day than on the breakfast day although the quality of diet did not differ between the breakfast and the no-breakfast day. Higher intakes of coffee in NHANES, regardless of its caffeine content, were associated with lower levels of liver enzymes.

National Institute of Health (NIH)
National Cancer Institute (NCI)
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Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics
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Meulepas, Johanna M; Hauptmann, Michael; Lubin, Jay H et al. (2018) Is there Unmeasured Indication Bias in Radiation-Related Cancer Risk Estimates from Studies of Computed Tomography? Radiat Res 189:128-135
Flegal, Katherine M; Graubard, Barry I; Yi, Sang-Wook (2017) Comparative effects of the restriction method in two large observational studies of body mass index and mortality among adults. Eur J Clin Invest 47:415-421
Nyante, S J; Graubard, B I; Li, Y et al. (2012) Trends in sex hormone concentrations in US males: 1988-1991 to 1999-2004. Int J Androl 35:456-66