Vitamin D. Methods were developed for seasonal adjustment and calibration to support the multicenter international Vitamin D Pooling Project for Breast and Colorectal Cancer. These methods were used to guide the analysis on the associations of blood levels of Vitamin D with the risk of breast and of colorectal cancer with findings that indicate protective effects for colorectal cancer. Cervical HPV and Pap testing. The effect of HPV testing, and HPV typing, for managing atypical cells of undetermined significance were studies. Cancer risks were calculated in New Mexico population. Risk stratification from HPV typing, and screening test performance in China were determined. Oral cancer. Risk of progression from oral leukoplakia to cancer, and the burden of HPV-positive oral cancer in smokers vs. nonsmokers were determined. Cancer risk in HIV-Infected Elderly Adults in SEER-Medicare was estimated. Microbiome. A sampling design was developed for a major study of association of microbiome measurements from buccal samples from NHANES and AARP and several cancer and non-cancer outcomes. Analysis of microbiome features of non-cancerous lung tissue from patients resected for lung cancer, showed that this non-cancerous lung tissue had a distinctive microbiome community that differs from oral microbiome. A study of the effects showed little effects of smoking on the microbiome at nine oral sites. The buccal cell microbiota was found to be representative of the entire oral microbiome. Skin cancer. Age, sex, sunburns, chronic sun exposure, past personal history of non-melanoma skin cancer or other non-cutaneous neoplasia, and the MC1R variants p.D294H and p.R163Q were significantly associated with keratinocyte skin cancer risk for 1200 Spanish patients treated for melanoma. Multiple Myeloma. Analyses of MMSET-like gene signature suggested the involvement of p53 and MYC pathways. Brain Cancer. The spectrum of brain neoplasms in 1119 myotonic dystrophy (DM) patients from the National Swedish Patient Register between 1987 and 2007, who were linked to the National Cancer and the Cause of Death Registers were described, and the absolute risk of DM-related brain tumors was found to be modest. Gallbladder and Liver Cancer. Inflammation/immune-related markers measured in bile and serum in gallbladder cancer (GBC) patients from Shanghai, China were compared to gallstone patients and GBC was associated with inflammation above and beyond that generated by gallstones alone, and this local inflammatory process is reflected systemically. Among US Medicare recipients, metabolic disorders contribute more to the burden of Hepatocellular carcinoma than any other risk factor, and the fraction of HCC caused by metabolic disorders has increased in the last decade. Breast cancer. A model for absolute risk of breast cancer including SNPs can provide risk stratification for the population of white women in the US, and can also identify subsets of the population at an elevated risk that would benefit most from risk-reduction strategies based on altering modifiable factors. Prostate cancer. Patterned hair loss in the first National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Epidemiologic Follow-up Study was associated with a higher risk of fatal prostate cancer and supports the hypothesis of overlapping pathophysiological mechanisms. Cancer screening. Over 2000-10 US screening rates increased for colorectal cancer but were stable or declining slightly for mammography. The Black-Whites disparity in colorectal screening rates unexplained by demographic and service factors. Nutrition. In free-living American adults in the 2005-2010 NHANES, the eating time for lunch was earlier, and the lunch meal provided more energy on the no-breakfast day than on the breakfast day, although the quality of dietary selections reflected in the energy and macronutrient density of a day's intake did not differ between the breakfast and the no-breakfast day. Despite widespread popularity and possible health effects, the prevalence and distribution of coffee consumption in US adults is poorly characterized. Coffee was widely consumed in the US, with usual intake varying by lifestyle and demographic factors, most notably age. Pancreatic cancer. In the prospective NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study found no association between coffee pancreatic cancer. Smoking. In the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study, pack-years was found to be the primary determinant of smoking-related CVD risk, but accrual influenced RRs; for equal pack-years, smoking fewer cigarettes/day for longer duration was more deleterious than smoking more cigarettes/day for shorter duration. Thyroid cancer. Studies have causally linked external thyroid irradiation in childhood with thyroid cancer. Pooled data from 12 studies of thyroid cancer in children irradiated ages 20 years observed radiogenic effects for both papillary and non-papillary tumors, and exposure to chemotherapy was with thyroid cancer, with results supporting a non-synergistic (additive) association with radiation

National Institute of Health (NIH)
National Cancer Institute (NCI)
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Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics
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Meulepas, Johanna M; Hauptmann, Michael; Lubin, Jay H et al. (2018) Is there Unmeasured Indication Bias in Radiation-Related Cancer Risk Estimates from Studies of Computed Tomography? Radiat Res 189:128-135
Flegal, Katherine M; Graubard, Barry I; Yi, Sang-Wook (2017) Comparative effects of the restriction method in two large observational studies of body mass index and mortality among adults. Eur J Clin Invest 47:415-421
Nyante, S J; Graubard, B I; Li, Y et al. (2012) Trends in sex hormone concentrations in US males: 1988-1991 to 1999-2004. Int J Androl 35:456-66